Academic Excellence

Catholic school students score consistently higher on standardized tests and other measures of academic achievement. Our schools strive for excellence because our ultimate goal is the glory of God. God is glorified in human lives that are fully realized.

We have specific measures by grade and competency that help our students excel academically. Click on the menu to the right to view the measures by Grade and competency.

Kindergarten (Language)

  • K.L.1 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • K.L.1.a – Print many upper- and lowercase letters.
    • K.L.1.b – Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.
    • K.L.1.c – Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).
    • K.L.1.d – Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).
    • K.L.1.e – Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).
    • K.L.1.f – Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.
  • K.L.2 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • K.L.2.a – Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.
    • K.L.2.b – Recognize and name end punctuation.
    • K.L.2.c – Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
    • K.L.2.d – Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.
  • K.L.3 – (Begins in grade 2)
  • K.L.4 – Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.
    • K.L.4.a – Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck).
    • K.L.4.b – Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful, -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word.
  • K.L.5 – With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
    • K.L.5.a – Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
    • K.L.5.b – Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms).
    • K.L.5.c – Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful).
    • K.L.5.d – Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings.
  • K.L.6 – Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.

Kindergarten (Reading Foundational Skills)

  • K.RF.1 – Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
    • K.RF.1.a – Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
    • K.RF.1.b – Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
    • K.RF.1.c – Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
    • K.RF.1.d – Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.
  • K.RF.2 – Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
    • K.RF.2.a – Recognize and produce rhyming words.
    • K.RF.2.b – Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.
    • K.RF.2.c – Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.
    • K.RF.2.d – Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonent-vowel-consonent, or CVC) words.* (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.)
    • K.RF.2.e – Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words.
  • K.RF.3 – Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    • K.RF.3.a – Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or many of the most frequent sound for each consonant.
    • K.RF.3.b – Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels.
    • K.RF.3.c – Read common high-frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does).
    • K.RF.3.d – Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.
  • K.RF.4 – Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.

Kindergarten (Speaking and Listening)

  • K.SL.1 – Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
  • K.SL.2 – Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.
  • K.SL.3 – Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood.
  • K.SL.4 – Describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail.
  • K.SL.5 – Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.
  • K.SL.6 – Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.

Kindergarten (Writing)

  • K.W.1 – Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is…).
  • K.W.2 – Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.
  • K.W.3 – Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.
  • K.W.4 – (Begins in grade 3)
  • K.W.5 – With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
  • K.W.6 – With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.
  • K.W.7 – Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them).
  • K.W.8 – With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • K.W.9 – (Begins in grade 4)
  • K.W.10 – (Begins in grade 3)

Kindergarten (Counting And Cardinality)

  • K.CC.1 – Count to 100 by ones and by tens.
  • K.CC.2 – Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1).
  • K.CC.3 – Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).
  • K.CC.4 – Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.
    • K.CC.4.a – When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object.
    • K.CC.4.b – Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.
    • K.CC.4.c – Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.
  • K.CC.5 – Count to answer “how many?” questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1–20, count out that many objects.
  • K.CC.6 – Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies.1
  • K.CC.7 – Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals.

Kindergarten (Operations And Algebraic Thinking)

  • K.OA.1 – Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings2, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.
  • K.OA.2 – Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.
  • K.OA.3 – Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).
  • K.OA.4 – For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.
  • K.OA.5 – Fluently add and subtract within 5.

Kindergarten (Number And Operations In Base Ten)

  • K.NBT.1 – Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.

Kindergarten (Measurement And Data)

  • K.MD.1 – Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object.
  • K.MD.2 – Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has “more of”/“less of” the attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the heights of two children and describe one child as taller/shorter.
  • K.MD.3 – Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.3

Kindergarten (Geometry)

  • K.G.1 – Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to.
  • K.G.2 – Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size.
  • K.G.3 – Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, “flat”) or three- dimensional (“solid”).
  • K.G.4 – Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/“corners”) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length).
  • K.G.5 – Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.
  • K.G.6 – Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, “Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?”

Kindergarten (Reading Informational)

  • K.RI.1 – With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • K.RI.2 – With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
  • K.RI.3 – With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.
  • K.RI.4 – With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.
  • K.RI.5 – Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.
  • K.RI.6 – Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text.
  • K.RI.7 – With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear (e.g., what person, place, thing, or idea in the text an illustration depicts).
  • K.RI.8 – With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.
  • K.RI.9 – With prompting and support, identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).
  • K.RI.10 – Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.

Kindergarten (Reading Literature)

  • K.RL.1 – With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • K.RL.2 – With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.
  • K.RL.3 – With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.
  • K.RL.4 – Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.
  • K.RL.5 – Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems).
  • K.RL.6 – With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story.
  • K.RL.7 – With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts).
  • K.RL.8 – (Not applicable to literature)
  • K.RL.9 – With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.
  • K.RL.10 – Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.

Grade 1 (Grade 1 Language)

  • 1.L.1 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • 1.L.1.a – Print all upper- and lowercase letters.
    • 1.L.1.b – Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.
    • 1.L.1.c – Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop).
    • 1.L.1.d – Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything).
    • 1.L.1.e – Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).
    • 1.L.1.f – Use frequently occurring adjectives.
    • 1.L.1.g – Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because).
    • 1.L.1.h – Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).
    • 1.L.1.i – Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).
    • 1.L.1.j – Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.
  • 1.L.2 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • 1.L.2.a – Capitalize dates and names of people.
    • 1.L.2.b – Use end punctuation for sentences.
    • 1.L.2.c – Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.
    • 1.L.2.d – Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.
    • 1.L.2.e – Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions.
  • 1.L.3 – (Begins in grade 2)
  • 1.L.4 – Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
    • 1.L.4.a – Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • 1.L.4.b – Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.
    • 1.L.4.c – Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking).
  • 1.L.5 – With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
    • 1.L.5.a – Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
    • 1.L.5.b – Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims; a tiger is a large cat with stripes).
    • 1.L.5.c – Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
    • 1.L.5.d – Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.
  • 1.L.6 – Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).

Grade 1 (Grade 1 Reading Foundational Skills)

  • 1.RF.1 – Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
    • 1.RF.1.a – Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation).
  • 1.RF.2 – Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
    • 1.RF.2.a – Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words.
    • 1.RF.2.b – Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends.
    • 1.RF.2.c – Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words.
    • 1.RF.2.d – Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes).
  • 1.RF.3 – Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    • 1.RF.3.a – Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs.
    • 1.RF.3.b – Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.
    • 1.RF.3.c – Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.
    • 1.RF.3.d – Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word.
    • 1.RF.3.e – Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables.
    • 1.RF.3.f – Read words with inflectional endings.
    • 1.RF.3.g – Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.
  • 1.RF.4 – Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
    • 1.RF.4.a – Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
    • 1.RF.4.b – Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
    • 1.RF.4.c – Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Grade 1 (Grade 1 Reading Literature)

  • 1.RL.1 – Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
  • 1.RL.2 – Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson.
  • 1.RL.3 – Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.
  • 1.RL.4 – Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.
  • 1.RL.5 – Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types.
  • 1.RL.6 – Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text.
  • 1.RL.7 – Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events.
  • 1.RL.8 – (Not applicable to literature)
  • 1.RL.9 – Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories.
  • 1.RL.10 – With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1.

Grade 1 (Grade 1 Speaking and Listening)

  • 1.SL.1 – Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
    • 1.SL.1.a – Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • 1.SL.1.b – Build on others’ talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges.
    • 1.SL.1.c – Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under discussion.
  • 1.SL.2 – Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • 1.SL.3 – Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood.
  • 1.SL.4 – Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly.
  • 1.SL.5 – Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • 1.SL.6 – Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation.

Grade 1 (Grade 1 Writing)

  • 1.W.1 – Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.
  • 1.W.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.
  • 1.W.3 – Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.
  • 1.W.4 – (Begins in grade 3)
  • 1.W.5 – With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
  • 1.W.6 – With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.
  • 1.W.7 – Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions).
  • 1.W.8 – With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • 1.W.9 – (Begins in grade 4)
  • 1.W.10 – (Begins in grade 3)

Grade 1 (Grade 1 Operations And Algebraic Thinking)

  • 1.OA.1 – Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.2
  • 1.OA.2 – Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.
  • 1.OA.3 – Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract.3 Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12. (Associative property of addition.)
  • 1.OA.4 – Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8.
  • 1.OA.5 – Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).
  • 1.OA.6 – Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).
  • 1.OA.7 – Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 – 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2.
  • 1.OA.8 – Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 + ? = 11, 5 = � – 3, 6 + 6 = �.

Grade 1 (Grade 1 Number And Operations In Base Ten)

  • 1.NBT.1 – Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral.
  • 1.NBT.2 – Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases:
    • 1.NBT.2.a – 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones — called a “ten.” b.
    • 1.NBT.2.b – The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.
    • 1.NBT.2.c – The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones).
  • 1.NBT.3 – Compare two two-digit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <.
  • 1.NBT.4 – Add within 100, including adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number, and adding a two-digit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding two-digit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten.
  • 1.NBT.5 – Given a two-digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used.
  • 1.NBT.6 – Subtract multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 from multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 (positive or zero differences), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

Grade 1 (Grade 1 Measurement And Data)

  • 1.MD.1 – Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object.
  • 1.MD.2 – Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps.
  • 1.MD.3 – Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks.
  • 1.MD.4 – Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.

Grade 1 (Grade 1 Geometry)

  • 1.G.1 – Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes.
  • 1.G.2 – Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or three-dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.4
  • 1.G.3 – Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares.

Grade 2 (Grade 2 Language)

  • 2.L.1 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • 2.L.1.a – Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
    • 2.L.1.b – Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
    • 2.L.1.c – Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
    • 2.L.1.d – Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
    • 2.L.1.e – Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • 2.L.1.f – Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).
  • 2.L.2 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • 2.L.2.a – Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
    • 2.L.2.b – Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
    • 2.L.2.c – Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
    • 2.L.2.d – Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage → badge; boy → boil).
      2.L.2.e – Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.
  • 2.L.3 – Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
    • 2.L.3.a – Compare formal and informal uses of English.
  • 2.L.4 – Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
    • 2.L.4.a – Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • 2.L.4.b – Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell).
    • 2.L.4.c – Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).
    • 2.L.4.d – Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).
    • 2.L.4.e – Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.
  • 2.L.5 – Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
    • 2.L.5.a – Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy).
    • 2.L.5.b – Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny).
  • 2.L.6 – Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy).

Grade 2 (Grade 2 Reading Foundational Skills)

  • 2.RF.3 – Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    • 2.RF.3.a – Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words.
    • 2.RF.3.b – Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams.
    • 2.RF.3.c – Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels.
    • 2.RF.3.d – Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes.
    • 2.RF.3.e – Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences.
    • 2.RF.3.f – Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.
  • 2.RF.4 – Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
    • 2.RF.4.a – Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
    • 2.RF.4.b – Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
    • 2.RF.4.c – Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Grade 2 (Grade 2 Reading Informational)

  • 2.RI.1 – Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
  • 2.RI.2 – Identify the main topic of a multiparagraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.
  • 2.RI.3 – Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text.
  • 2.RI.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.
  • 2.RI.5 – Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.
  • 2.RI.6 – Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.
  • 2.RI.7 – Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.
  • 2.RI.8 – Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.
  • 2.RI.9 – Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.
  • 2.RI.10 – By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 2 (Grade 2 Reading Literature)

  • 2.RL.1 – Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
  • 2.RL.2 – Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.
  • 2.RL.3 – Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.
  • 2.RL.4 – Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
  • 2.RL.5 – Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.
  • 2.RL.6 – Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud.
  • 2.RL.7 – Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.
  • 2.RL.8 – (Not applicable to literature)
  • 2.RL.9 – Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures.
  • 2.RL.10 – By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 2 (Grade 2 Speaking and Listening)

  • 2.SL.1 – Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
    • 2.SL.1.a – Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • 2.SL.1.b – Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others.
    • 2.SL.1.c – Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion.
  • 2.SL.2 – Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
  • 2.SL.3 – Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.
  • 2.SL.4 – Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.
  • 2.SL.5 – Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
  • 2.SL.6 – Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification.

Grade 2 (Grade 2 Writing)

  • 2.W.1 – Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • 2.W.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.
  • 2.W.3 – Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.
  • 2.W.4 – (Begins in grade 3)
  • 2.W.5 – With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.
  • 2.W.6 – With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.
  • 2.W.7 – Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).
  • 2.W.8 – Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
  • 2.W.9 – (Begins in grade 4)
  • 2.W.10 – (Begins in grade 3)

Grade 2 (Grade 2 Operations And Algebraic Thinking)

  • 2.OA.1 – Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one- and two-step word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.1
  • 2.OA.2 – Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies.2 By end of Grade 2, know from memory all sums of two one-digit numbers.
  • 2.OA.3 – Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends.
  • 2.OA.4 – Use addition to find the total number of objects arranged in rectangular arrays with up to 5 rows and up to 5 columns; write an equation to express the total as a sum of equal addends.

Grade 2 (Grade 2 Number And Operations In Base Ten)

  • 2.NBT.1 – Understand that the three digits of a three-digit number represent amounts of hundreds, tens, and ones; e.g., 706 equals 7 hundreds, 0 tens, and 6 ones. Understand the following as special cases:
    • 2.NBT.1.a – 100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens — called a “hundred.”
    • 2.NBT.1.b – The numbers 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0 ones).
  • 2.NBT.2 – Count within 1000; skip-count by 5s, 10s, and 100s.
  • 2.NBT.3 – Read and write numbers to 1000 using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form.
  • 2.NBT.4 – Compare two three-digit numbers based on meanings of the hundreds, tens, and ones digits, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.
  • 2.NBT.5 – Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.
  • 2.NBT.6 – Add up to four two-digit numbers using strategies based on place value and properties of operations.
  • 2.NBT.7 – Add and subtract within 1000, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method. Understand that in adding or subtracting three- digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose or decompose tens or hundreds.
  • 2.NBT.8 – Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100–900, and mentally subtract 10 or 100 from a given number 100–900.
  • 2.NBT.9 – Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations.3

Grade 2 (Grade 2 Measurement And Data)

  • 2.MD.1 – Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes.
  • 2.MD.2 – Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen.
  • 2.MD.3 – Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters.
  • 2.MD.4 – Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another, expressing the length difference in terms of a standard length unit.
  • 2.MD.5 – Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.
  • 2.MD.6 – Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, …, and represent whole-number sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram.
  • 2.MD.7 – Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m.
  • 2.MD.8 – Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately. Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have?
  • 2.MD.9 – Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in whole-number units.
  • 2.MD.10 – Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put- together, take-apart, and compare problems4 using information presented in a bar graph.

Grade 2 (Grade 2 Geometry)

  • 2.G.1 – Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces.5 Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes.
  • 2.G.2 – Partition a rectangle into rows and columns of same-size squares and count to find the total number of them.
  • 2.G.3 – Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape.

Grade 3 (Grade 3Language)

  • 3.L.1 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • 3.L.1.a – Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.
    • 3.L.1.b – Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.
    • 3.L.1.c – Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).
    • 3.L.1.d – Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
    • 3.L.1.e – Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses.
    • 3.L.1.f – Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.*
    • 3.L.1.g – Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
    • 3.L.1.h – Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
    • 3.L.1.i – Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.
  • 3.L.2 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • 3.L.2.a – Capitalize appropriate words in titles.
    • 3.L.2.b – Use commas in addresses.
    • 3.L.2.c – Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue.
    • 3.L.2.d – Form and use possessives.
    • 3.L.2.e – Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness).
    • 3.L.2.f – Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words.
    • 3.L.2.g – Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.
  • 3.L.3 – Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
    • 3.L.3.a – Choose words and phrases for effect.*
    • 3.L.3.b – Recognize and observe differences between the conventions of spoken and written standard English.
  • 3.L.4 – Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    • 3.L.4.a – Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • 3.L.4.b – Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word (e.g., agreeable/disagreeable, comfortable/uncomfortable, care/careless, heat/preheat).
    • 3.L.4.c – Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., company, companion).
    • 3.L.4.d – Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
  • 3.L.5 – Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
    • 3.L.5.a – Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (e.g., take steps).
    • 3.L.5.b – Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe people who are friendly or helpful).
    • 3.L.5.c – Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty (e.g., knew, believed, suspected, heard, wondered).
  • 3.L.6 – Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them).

Grade 3 (Grade 3 Reading Foundational Skills)

  • 3.RF.3 – Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    • 3.RF.3.a – Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes.
    • 3.RF.3.b – Decode words with common Latin suffixes.
    • 3.RF.3.c – Decode multisyllable words.
    • 3.RF.3.d – Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.
  • 3.RF.4 – Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
    • 3.RF.4.a – Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
    • 3.RF.4.b – Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings
    • 3.RF.4.c – Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Grade 3 (Grade 3 Reading Informational)

  • 3.RI.1 – Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
  • 3.RI.2 – Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.
  • 3.RI.3 – Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.
  • 3.RI.4 – Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.
  • 3.RI.5 – Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently.
  • 3.RI.6 – Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text.
  • 3.RI.7 – Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).
  • 3.RI.8 – Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence).
  • 3.RI.9 – Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.
  • 3.RI.10 – By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 3 (Grade 3 Reading Literature)

  • 3.RL.1 – Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
  • 3.RL.2 – Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text.
  • 3.RL.3 – Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.
  • 3.RL.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.
  • 3.RL.5 – Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections.
  • 3.RL.6 – Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters.
  • 3.RL.7 – Explain how specific aspects of a text’s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting).
  • 3.RL.8 – (Not applicable to literature)
  • 3.RL.9 – Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books from a series).
  • 3.RL.10 – By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 3 (Grade 3 Speaking and Listening)

  • 3.SL.1 – Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • 3.SL.1.a – Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • 3.SL.1.b – Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
    • 3.SL.1.c – Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others.
    • 3.SL.1.d – Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  • 3.SL.2 – Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • 3.SL.3 – Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.
  • 3.SL.4 – Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.
  • 3.SL.5 – Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details.
  • 3.SL.6 – Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification.

Grade 3 (Grade 3 Writing)

  • 3.W.1 – Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.
    • 3.W.1.a – Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
    • 3.W.1.b – Provide reasons that support the opinion.
    • 3.W.1.c – Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons.
    • 3.W.1.d – Provide a concluding statement or section.
  • 3.W.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
    • 3.W.2.a – Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 3.W.2.b – Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.
    • 3.W.2.c – Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information.
    • 3.W.2.d – Provide a concluding statement or section.
  • 3.W.3 – Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
    • 3.W.3.a – Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    • 3.W.3.b – Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations.
    • 3.W.3.c – Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order.
    • 3.W.3.d – Provide a sense of closure.
  • 3.W.4 – With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • 3.W.5 – With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
  • 3.W.6 – With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
  • 3.W.7 – Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.
  • 3.W.8 – Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.
  • 3.W.9 – (Begins in grade 4)
  • 3.W.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 3 (Grade 3 Operations And Algebraic Thinking)

  • 3.OA.1 – Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 × 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 × 7.
  • 3.OA.2 – Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 ÷ 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 ÷ 8.
  • 3.OA.3 – Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.1
  • 3.OA.4 – Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 × ? = 48, 5 = � ÷ 3, 6 × 6 = ?.
  • 3.OA.5 – Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide.2 Examples: If 6 × 4 = 24 is known, then 4 × 6 = 24 is also known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3 × 5 × 2 can be found by 3 × 5 = 15, then 15 × 2 = 30, or by 5 × 2 = 10, then 3 × 10 = 30. (Associative property of multiplication.) Knowing that 8 × 5 = 40 and 8 × 2 = 16, one can find 8 × 7 as 8 × (5 + 2) = (8 × 5) + (8 × 2) = 40 + 16 = 56. (Distributive property.)
  • 3.OA.6 – Understand division as an unknown-factor problem. For example, find 32 ÷ 8 by finding the number that makes 32 when multiplied by 8.
  • 3.OA.7 – Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers.
  • 3.OA.8 – Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.3
  • 3.OA.9 – Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations. For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends.

Grade 3 (Grade 3 Number And Operations In Base Ten/Fractions)

  • 3.NBT.1 – Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100.
  • 3.NBT.2 – Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.
  • 3.NBT.3 – Multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10–90 (e.g., 9 × 80, 5 × 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations.
  • 3.NF.1 – Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b.
  • 3.NF.2 – Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram.
    • 3.NF.2.a – Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and partitioning it into b equal parts. Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line.
    • 3.NF.2.b – Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off a lengths 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line.
  • 3.NF.3 – Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size.
    • 3.NF.3.a – Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line.
    • 3.NF.3.b – Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3). Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.
    • 3.NF.3.c – Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. Examples: Express 3 in the form 3 = 3/1; recognize that 6/1 = 6; locate 4/4 and 1 at the same point of a number line diagram.
    • 3.NF.3.d – Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

Grade 3 (Grade 3 Measurement And Data)

  • 3.MD.1 – Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram.
  • 3.MD.2 – Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l).6 Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem.7
  • 3.MD.3 – Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step “how many more” and “how many less” problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets.
  • 3.MD.4 – Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units— whole numbers, halves, or quarters.
  • 3.MD.5 – Recognize area as an attribute of plane figures and understand concepts of area measurement.
    • 3.MD.5.a – A square with side length 1 unit, called “a unit square,” is said to have “one square unit” of area, and can be used to measure area.
    • 3.MD.5.b – A plane figure which can be covered without gaps or overlaps by n unit squares is said to have an area of n square units.
  • 3.MD.6 – Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units).
  • 3.MD.7 – Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition.
    • 3.MD.7.a – Find the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths.
    • 3.MD.7.b – Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole- number side lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems, and represent whole-number products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning.
    • 3.MD.7.c – Use tiling to show in a concrete case that the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths a and b + c is the sum of a × b and a × c. Use area models to represent the distributive property in mathematical reasoning.
    • 3.MD.7.d – Recognize area as additive. Find areas of rectilinear figures by decomposing them into non-overlapping rectangles and adding the areas of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems.
  • 3.MD.8 – Solve real world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters.

Grade 3 (Grade 3 Geometry)

  • 3.G.1 – Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories.
  • 3.G.2 – Partition shapes into parts with equal areas. Express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole. For example, partition a shape into 4 parts with equal area, and describe the area of each part as 1/4 of the area of the shape.

Grade 4 (Grade 4 Language)

  • 4.L.1 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • 4.L.1.a – Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
    • 4.L.1.b – Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
    • 4.L.1.c – Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
    • 4.L.1.d – Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
    • 4.L.1.e – Form and use prepositional phrases.
    • 4.L.1.f – Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.*
    • 4.L.1.g – Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).*
  • 4.L.2 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • 4.L.2.a – Use correct capitalization.
    • 4.L.2.b – Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
    • 4.L.2.c – Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
    • 4.L.2.d – Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.
  • 4.L.3 – Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
    • 4.L.3.a – Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.*
    • 4.L.3.b – Choose punctuation for effect.*
    • 4.L.3.c – Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).
  • 4.L.4 – Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    • 4.L.4.a – Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • 4.L.4.b – Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
    • 4.L.4.c – Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
  • 4.L.5 – Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
    • 4.L.5.a – Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.
    • 4.L.5.b – Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
    • 4.L.5.c – Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).
  • 4.L.6 – Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).

Grade 4 (Grade 4 Reading Foundational Skills)

  • 4.RF.3 – Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    • 4.RF.3.a – Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
  • 4.RF.4 – Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
    • 4.RF.4.a – Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
    • 4.RF.4.b – Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
    • 4.RF.4.c – Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Grade 4 (Grade 4 Reading Informational)

  • 4.RI.1 – Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • 4.RI.2 – Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.
  • 4.RI.3 – Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.
  • 4.RI.4 – Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.
  • 4.RI.5 – Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
  • 4.RI.6 – Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.
  • 4.RI.7 – Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.
  • 4.RI.8 – Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.
  • 4.RI.9 – Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.
  • 4.RI.10 – By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 4 (Grade 4 Reading Literature)

  • 4.RL.1 – Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • 4.RL.2 – Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.
  • 4.RL.3 – Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).
  • 4.RL.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean).
  • 4.RL.5 – Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text.
  • 4.RL.6 – Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.
  • 4.RL.7 – Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.
  • 4.RL.8 – (Not applicable to literature)
  • 4.RL.9 – Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.
  • 4.RL.10 – By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 4 (Grade 4 Speaking and Listening)

  • 4.SL.1 – Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • 4.SL.1.a – Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • 4.SL.1.b – Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    • 4.SL.1.c – Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
    • 4.SL.1.d – Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
  • 4.SL.2 – Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • 4.SL.3 – Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points.
  • 4.SL.4 – Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
  • 4.SL.5 – Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
  • 4.SL.6 – Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation.

Grade 4 (Grade 4 Writing)

  • 4.W.1 – Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
    • 4.W.1.a – Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
      4.W.1.b – Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
    • 4.W.1.c – Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).
    • 4.W.1.d – Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
  • 4.W.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
    • 4.W.2.a – Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 4.W.2.b – Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
    • 4.W.2.c – Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).
    • 4.W.2.d – d.Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • 4.W.2.e – Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
  • 4.W.3 – Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
    • 4.W.3.a – Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    • 4.W.3.b – Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
    • 4.W.3.c – Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events.
    • 4.W.3.d – Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
    • 4.W.3.e – Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
  • 4.W.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • 4.W.5 – With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
  • 4.W.6 – With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting.
  • 4.W.7 – Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
  • 4.W.8 – Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.
  • 4.W.9 – Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • 4.W.9.a – Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions].”).
    • 4.W.9.b – Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”).
  • 4.W.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 4 (Grade 4 Operations And Algebraic Thinking)

  • 4.OA.1 – Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.
  • 4.OA.2 – Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.1
  • 4.OA.3 – Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.
  • 4.OA.4 – Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1–100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is prime or composite.
  • 4.OA.5 – Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way.

Grade 4 (Grade 4 Number And Operations In Base Ten)

  • 4.NBT.1 – Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that 700 ÷ 70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division.
  • 4.NBT.2 – Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.
  • 4.NBT.3 – Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place.
  • 4.NBT.4 – Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.
  • 4.NBT.5 – Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
  • 4.NBT.6 – Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

Grade 4 (Grade 4 Number And Operations—Fractions3)

  • 4.NF.1 – Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.
  • 4.NF.2 – Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.
  • 4.NF.3 – Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. a.
    • 4.NF.3.a – Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.
    • 4.NF.3.b – Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8.
    • 4.NF.3.c – Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
    • 4.NF.3.d – Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.
  • 4.NF.4 – Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.
    • 4.NF.4.a – Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 × (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 × (1/4).
    • 4.NF.4.b – Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 × (2/5) as 6 × (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n × (a/b) = (n × a)/b.)
    • 4.NF.4.c – Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?
  • 4.NF.5 – Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100.4 For example, express 3/10 as 30/100, and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100.
  • 4.NF.6 – Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram.
  • 4.NF.7 – Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model.

Grade 4 (Grade 4 Measurement And Data)

  • 4.MD.1 – Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two- column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), …
  • 4.MD.2 – Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.
  • 4.MD.3 – Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.
  • 4.MD.4 – Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection.
  • 4.MD.5 – Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:
    • 4.MD.5.a – An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a “one-degree angle,” and can be used to measure angles.
    • 4.MD.5.b – An angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees.
  • 4.MD.6 – Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure.
  • 4.MD.7 – Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure.

Grade 4 (Grade 4 Geometry)

  • 4.G.1 – Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.
  • 4.G.2 – Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles.
  • 4.G.3 – Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry.

Grade 5 (Grade 5 Language)

  • 5.L.1 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  • 5.L.2 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  • 5.L.3 – Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
    • 5.L.3.a – Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
    • 5.L.3.b – Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e.g., dialects, registers) used in stories, dramas, or poems.
  • 5.L.4 – Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    • 5.L.4.a – Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • 5.L.4.b – Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis).
    • 5.L.4.c – Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
  • 5.L.5 – Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
    • 5.L.5.a – Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.
    • 5.L.5.b – Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
    • 5.L.5.c – Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words.
  • 5.L.6 – Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition).

Grade 5 (Grade 5 Reading Foundational Skills)

  • 5.RF.3 – Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    • 5.RF.3.a – Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.
  • 5.RF.4 – Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
    • 5.RF.4.a – Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
    • 5.RF.4.b – Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
    • 5.RF.4.c – Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Grade 5 (Grade 5 Reading Informational)

  • 5.RI.1 – Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • 5.RI.2 – Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.
  • 5.RI.3 – Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.
  • 5.RI.4 – Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.
  • 5.RI.5 – Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.
  • 5.RI.6 – Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.
  • 5.RI.7 – Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.
  • 5.RI.8 – Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s).
  • 5.RI.9 – Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.
  • 5.RI.10 – By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 5 (Grade 5 Reading Literature)

  • 5.RL.1 – Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  • 5.RL.2 – Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.
  • 5.RL.3 – Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).
  • 5.RL.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes.
  • 5.RL.5 – Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.
  • 5.RL.6 – Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described.
  • 5.RL.7 – Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem).
  • 5.RL.8 – (Not applicable to literature)
  • 5.RL.9 – Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics.
  • 5.RL.10 – By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 5 (Grade 5 Speaking and Listening)

  • 5.SL.1 – Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • 5.SL.1.a – Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • 5.SL.1.b – Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    • 5.SL.1.c – Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others.
    • 5.SL.1.d – Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions.
  • 5.SL.2 – Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
  • 5.SL.3 – Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence.
  • 5.SL.4 – Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
  • 5.SL.5 – Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
  • 5.SL.6 – Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task and situation.

Grade 5 (Grade 5 Writing)

  • 5.W.1 – Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
    • 5.W.1.a – Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
    • 5.W.1.b – Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
    • 5.W.1.c – Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically).
    • 5.W.1.d – Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
  • 5.W.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
    • 5.W.2.a – Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 5.W.2.b – Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
    • 5.W.2.c – Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially).
    • 5.W.2.d – Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • 5.W.2.e – Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
  • 5.W.3 – Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
    • 5.W.3.a – Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    • 5.W.3.b – Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
    • 5.W.3.c – Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events.
    • 5.W.3.d – Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
    • 5.W.3.e – Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
  • 5.W.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • 5.W.5 – With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
  • 5.W.6 – With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting.
  • 5.W.7 – Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
  • 5.W.8 – Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.
  • 5.W.9 – Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • 5.W.9.a – Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]”).
    • 5.W.9.b – Apply grade 5 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s]”).
  • 5.W.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 5 (Grade 5 Operations And Algebraic Thinking)

  • 5.OA.1 – Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols.
  • 5.OA.2 – Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation “add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” as 2 × (8 + 7). Recognize that 3 × (18932 + 921) is three times as large as 18932 + 921, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product.
  • 5.OA.3 – Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 0, and given the rule “Add 6” and the starting number 0, generate terms in the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. Explain informally why this is so.

Grade 5 (Grade 5 Number And Operations In Base Ten)

  • 5.NBT.1 – Recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left.
  • 5.NBT.2 – Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10, and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10. Use whole-number exponents to denote powers of 10.
  • 5.NBT.3 – Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths.
    • 5.NBT.3.a – Read and write decimals to thousandths using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form, e.g., 347.392 = 3 × 100 + 4 × 10 + 7 × 1 + 3 × (1/10) + 9 × (1/100) + 2 × (1/1000).
    • 5.NBT.3.b – Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.
  • 5.NBT.4 – Use place value understanding to round decimals to any place.
  • 5.NBT.5 – Fluently multiply multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.
  • 5.NBT.6 – Find whole-number quotients of whole numbers with up to four-digit dividends and two-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
  • 5.NBT.7 – Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

Grade 5 (Grade 5 Measurement And Data)

  • 5.MD.1 – Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multi-step, real world problems.
  • 5.MD.2 – Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally.
  • 5.MD.3 – Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement.
    • 5.MD.3.a – A cube with side length 1 unit, called a “unit cube,” is said to have “one cubic unit” of volume, and can be used to measure volume.
    • 5.MD.3.b – A solid figure which can be packed without gaps or overlaps using n unit cubes is said to have a volume of n cubic units.
  • 5.MD.4 – Measure volumes by counting unit cubes, using cubic cm, cubic in, cubic ft, and improvised units.
  • 5.MD.5 – Relate volume to the operations of multiplication and addition and solve real world and mathematical problems involving volume.
    • 5.MD.5.a – Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with whole-number side lengths by packing it with unit cubes, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths, equivalently by multiplying the height by the area of the base. Represent threefold whole-number products as volumes, e.g., to represent the associative property of multiplication.
    • 5.MD.5.b – Apply the formulas V=l×w×handV=b×h for rectangular prisms to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with whole- number edge lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems.
    • 5.MD.5.c – Recognize volume as additive. Find volumes of solid figures composed of two non-overlapping right rectangular prisms by adding the volumes of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems.

Grade 5 (Grade 5 Geometry)

  • 5.G.1 – Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., x-axis and x-coordinate, y-axis and y-coordinate).
  • 5.G.2 – Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation.
  • 5.G.3 – Understand that attributes belonging to a category of two- dimensional figures also belong to all subcategories of that category. For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles.
  • 5.G.4 – Classify two-dimensional figures in a hierarchy based on properties.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Reading History Social Studies)

  • 6-8.RH.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
  • 6-8.RH.2 – Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
  • 6-8.RH.3 – Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered).
  • 6-8.RH.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
  • 6-8.RH.5 – Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
  • 6-8.RH.6 – Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).
  • 6-8.RH.7 – Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
  • 6-8.RH.8 – Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.
  • 6-8.RH.9 – Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.
  • 6-8.RH.10 – By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Reading Science Technical)

  • 6-8.RST.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts.
  • 6-8.RST.2 – Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
  • 6-8.RST.3 – Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.
  • 6-8.RST.4 – Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6–8 texts and topics.
  • 6-8.RST.5 – Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to an understanding of the topic.
  • 6-8.RST.6 – Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text.
  • 6-8.RST.7 – Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).
  • 6-8.RST.8 – Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text.
  • 6-8.RST.9 – Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.
  • 6-8.RST.10 – By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Writing HS ST)

  • 6-8.WHST.1 – Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.a – Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.b – Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • 6-8.WHST.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.a – Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.b – Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.c – Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.d – Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.e – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.f – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
  • 6-8.WHST.3 – (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement)
  • 6-8.WHST.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • 6-8.WHST.5 – With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
  • 6-8.WHST.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently.
  • 6-8.WHST.7 – Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
  • 6-8.WHST.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • 6-8.WHST.9 – Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research.
  • 6-8.WHST.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Language)

  • 6.L.1 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
  • 6.L.2 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
  • 6.L.3 – Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
  • 6.L.4 – Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  • 6.L.5 – Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  • 6.L.6 – Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Reading Informational)

  • 6.RI.1 – Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • 6.RI.2 – Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.
  • 6.RI.3 – Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).
  • 6.RI.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings.
  • 6.RI.5 – Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.
  • 6.RI.6 – Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.
  • 6.RI.7 – Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.
  • 6.RI.8 – Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.
  • 6.RI.9 – Compare and contrast one author’s presentation of events with that of another (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person).
  • 6.RI.10 – By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Reading Literature)

  • 6.RL.1 – Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • 6.RL.2 – Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.
  • 6.RL.3 – Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.
  • 6.RL.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.
  • 6.RL.5 – Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.
  • 6.RL.6 – Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text.
  • 6.RL.7 – Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including contrasting what they “see” and “hear” when reading the text to what they perceive when they listen or watch.
  • 6.RL.8 – (Not applicable to literature)
  • 6.RL.9 – Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.
  • 6.RL.10 – By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Speaking and Listening)

  • 6.SL.1 – Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • 6.SL.1.a – Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
    • 6.SL.1.b – Follow rules for collegial discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
    • 6.SL.1.c – Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.
    • 6.SL.1.d – Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing.
  • 6.SL.2 – Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.
  • 6.SL.3 – Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.
  • 6.SL.4 – Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
  • 6.SL.5 – Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.
  • 6.SL.6 – Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Writing)

  • 6.W.1 – Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    • 6.W.1.a – Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
    • 6.W.1.b – Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
    • 6.W.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
    • 6.W.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • 6.W.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.
  • 6.W.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
    • 6.W.2.a – Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 6.W.2.b – Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    • 6.W.2.c – Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • 6.W.2.d – Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • 6.W.2.e – Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • 6.W.2.f – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented.
  • 6.W.3 – Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • 6.W.3.a – Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    • 6.W.3.b – Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • 6.W.3.c – Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
    • 6.W.3.d – Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.
    • 6.W.3.e – Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
  • 6.W.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • 6.W.5 – With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
  • 6.W.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting.
  • 6.W.7 – Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.
  • 6.W.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.
  • 6.W.9 – Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • 6.W.9.a – Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics”).
    • 6.W.9.b – Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not”).
  • 6.W.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Ratios And Proportional Relationships)

  • 6.RP.1 – Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. For example, “The ratio of wings to beaks in the bird house at the zoo was 2:1, because for every 2 wings there was 1 beak.” “For every vote candidate A received, candidate C received nearly three votes.”
  • 6.RP.2 – Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b ≠ 0, and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship. For example, “This recipe has a ratio of 3 cups of flour to 4 cups of sugar, so there is 3/4 cup of flour for each cup of sugar.” “We paid $75 for 15 hamburgers, which is a rate of $5 per hamburger.”1
  • 6.RP.3 – Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations.
    • 6.RP.3.a – Make tables of equivalent ratios relating quantities with whole- number measurements, find missing values in the tables, and plot the pairs of values on the coordinate plane. Use tables to compare ratios.
    • 6.RP.3.b – Solve unit rate problems including those involving unit pricing and constant speed. For example, if it took 7 hours to mow 4 lawns, then at that rate, how many lawns could be mowed in 35 hours? At what rate were lawns being mowed?
    • 6.RP.3.c – Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100 (e.g., 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity); solve problems involving finding the whole, given a part and the percent.
    • 6.RP.3.d – Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units; manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 The Number System)

  • 6.NS.1 – Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of fractions by fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, create a story context for (2/3) ÷ (3/4) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient; use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (2/3) ÷ (3/4) = 8/9 because 3/4 of 8/9 is 2/3. (In general, (a/b) ÷ (c/d) = ad/bc.) How much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 3/4-cup servings are in 2/3 of a cup of yogurt? How wide is a rectangular strip of land with length 3/4 mi and area 1/2 square mi?
  • 6.NS.2 – Fluently divide multi-digit numbers using the standard algorithm.
  • 6.NS.3 – Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multi-digit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation.
  • 6.NS.4 – Find the greatest common factor of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100 and the least common multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 12. Use the distributive property to express a sum of two whole numbers 1–100 with a common factor as a multiple of a sum of two whole numbers with no common factor. For example, express 36 + 8 as 4 (9 + 2).
  • 6.NS.5 – Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation.
  • 6.NS.6 – Understand a rational number as a point on the number line. Extend number line diagrams and coordinate axes familiar from previous grades to represent points on the line and in the plane with negative number coordinates.
    • 6.NS.6.a – Recognize opposite signs of numbers as indicating locations on opposite sides of 0 on the number line; recognize that the opposite of the opposite of a number is the number itself, e.g., –(–3) = 3, and that 0 is its own opposite.
    • 6.NS.6.b – Understand signs of numbers in ordered pairs as indicating locations in quadrants of the coordinate plane; recognize that when two ordered pairs differ only by signs, the locations of the points are related by reflections across one or both axes.
    • 6.NS.6.c – Find and position integers and other rational numbers on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram; find and position pairs of integers and other rational numbers on a coordinate plane.
  • 6.NS.7 – Understand ordering and absolute value of rational numbers.
    • 6.NS.7.a – Interpret statements of inequality as statements about the relative position of two numbers on a number line diagram. For example, interpret –3 > –7 as a statement that –3 is located to the right of –7 on a number line oriented from left to right.
    • 6.NS.7.b – Write, interpret, and explain statements of order for rational numbers in real-world contexts. For example, write –3 oC > –7 oC to express the fact that –3 oC is warmer than –7 oC.
    • 6.NS.7.c – Understand the absolute value of a rational number as its distance from 0 on the number line; interpret absolute value as magnitude for a positive or negative quantity in a real-world situation. For example, for an account balance of –30 dollars, write |–30| = 30 to describe the size of the debt in dollars.
    • 6.NS.7.d – Distinguish comparisons of absolute value from statements about order. For example, recognize that an account balance less than –30 dollars represents a debt greater than 30 dollars.
  • 6.NS.8 – Solve real-world and mathematical problems by graphing points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane. Include use of coordinates and absolute value to find distances between points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Expressions And Equations)

  • 6.EE.1 – Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents.
  • 6.EE.2 – Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.
    • 6.EE.2.a – Write expressions that record operations with numbers and with letters standing for numbers. For example, express the calculation “Subtract y from 5” as 5 – y.
    • 6.EE.2.b – Identify parts of an expression using mathematical terms (sum, term, product, factor, quotient, coefficient); view one or more parts of an expression as a single entity. For example, describe the expression 2 (8 + 7) as a product of two factors; view (8 + 7) as both a single entity and a sum of two terms.
    • 6.EE.2.c – Evaluate expressions at specific values of their variables. Include expressions that arise from formulas used in real-world problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole- number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations). For example, use the formulas V = s3 and A = 6 s2 to find the volume and surface area of a cube with sides of length s = 1/2.
  • 6.EE.3 – Apply the properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions.
  • 6.EE.4 – Identify when two expressions are equivalent (i.e., when the two expressions name the same number regardless of which value is substituted into them). For example, the expressions y + y + y and 3y are equivalent because they name the same number regardless of which number y stands for.
  • 6.EE.5 – Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine whether a given number in a specified set makes an equation or inequality true.
  • 6.EE.6 – Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set.
  • 6.EE.7 – Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q and x are all nonnegative rational numbers.
  • 6.EE.8 – Write an inequality of the form x > c or x < c to represent a constraint or condition in a real-world or mathematical problem. Recognize that inequalities of the form x > c or x < c have infinitely many solutions; represent solutions of such inequalities on number line diagrams.
  • 6.EE.9 – Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. For example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered pairs of distances and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent the relationship between distance and time.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Geometry)

  • 6.G.1 – Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.
  • 6.G.2 – Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with fractional edge lengths by packing it with unit cubes of the appropriate unit fraction edge lengths, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths of the prism. Apply the formulas V = l w h and V = b h to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.
  • 6.G.3 – Draw polygons in the coordinate plane given coordinates for the vertices; use coordinates to find the length of a side joining points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.
  • 6.G.4 – Represent three-dimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Statistics And Probability)

  • 6.SP.1 – Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. For example, “How old am I?” is not a statistical question, but “How old are the students in my school?” is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students’ ages.
  • 6.SP.2 – Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape.
  • 6.SP.3 – Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number.
  • 6.SP.4 – Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots.
  • 6.SP.5 – Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by:
    • 6.SP.5.a – Reporting the number of observations.
    • 6.SP.5.b – Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement.
    • 6.SP.5.c – Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered.
    • 6.SP.5.d – Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data were gathered.

Grade 7 (Grade 7 Language)

  • 7.L.1 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • 7.L.1.a – Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences.
    • 7.L.1.b – Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas.
    • 7.L.1.c – Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.*
  • 7.L.2 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • 7.L.2.a – Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie but not He wore an old[,] green shirt).
    • 7.L.2.b – Spell correctly.
  • 7.L.3 – Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
    • 7.L.3.a – Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.*
  • 7.L.4 – Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 7 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    • 7.L.4.a – Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • 7.L.4.b – Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose, rebel).
    • 7.L.4.c – Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
    • 7.L.4.d – Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  • 7.L.5 – Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
    • 7.L.5.a – Interpret figures of speech (e.g., literary, biblical, and mythological allusions) in context.
    • 7.L.5.b – Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonym/antonym, analogy) to better understand each of the words.
    • 7.L.5.c – Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., refined, respectful, polite, diplomatic, condescending).
  • 7.L.6 – Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Grade 7 (Grade 7 Reading Informational)

  • 7.RI.1 – Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • 7.RI.2 – Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • 7.RI.3 – Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events).
  • 7.RI.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.
  • 7.RI.5 – Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas.
  • 7.RI.6 – Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others.
  • 7.RI.7 – Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words).
  • 7.RI.8 – Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims.
  • 7.RI.9 – Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts.
  • 7.RI.10 – By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 7 (Grade 7 Reading Literature)

  • 7.RL.1 – Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • 7.RL.2 – Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • 7.RL.3 – Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot).
  • 7.RL.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama.
  • 7.RL.5 – Analyze how a drama’s or poem’s form or structure (e.g., soliloquy, sonnet) contributes to its meaning.
  • 7.RL.6 – Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text.
  • 7.RL.7 – Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film).
  • 7.RL.8 – (Not applicable to literature)
  • 7.RL.9 – Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history.
  • 7.RL.10 – By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 7 (Grade 7 Speaking and Listening)

  • 7.SL.1 – Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • 7.SL.1.a – Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
    • 7.SL.1.b – Follow rules for collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
    • 7.SL.1.c – Pose questions that elicit elaboration and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed.
    • 7.SL.1.d – Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, modify their own views.
  • 7.SL.2 – Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.
  • 7.SL.3 – Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
  • 7.SL.4 – Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
  • 7.SL.5 – Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points.
  • 7.SL.6 – Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Grade 7 (Grade 7 Writing)

  • 7.W.1 – Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    • 7.W.1.a – Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
    • 7.W.1.b – Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
    • 7.W.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.
    • 7.W.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • 7.W.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • 7.W.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
    • 7.W.2.a – Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 7.W.2.b – Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    • 7.W.2.c – Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • 7.W.2.d – Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • 7.W.2.e – Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • 7.W.2.f – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
  • 7.W.3 – Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • 7.W.3.a – Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    • 7.W.3.b – Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • 7.W.3.c – Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
    • 7.W.3.d – Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
    • 7.W.3.e – Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
  • 7.W.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • 7.W.5 – With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
  • 7.W.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources.
  • 7.W.7 – Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.
  • 7.W.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • 7.W.9 – Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • 7.W.9.a – Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history”).
    • 7.W.9.b – Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g. “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims”).
  • 7.W.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 7 (Grade 7 Ratios And Proportional Relationships)

  • 7.RP.1 – Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units. For example, if a person walks 1/2 mile in each 1/4 hour, compute the unit rate as the complex fraction 1/2/1/4 miles per hour, equivalently 2 miles per hour.
  • 7.RP.2 – Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.
    • 7.RP.2.a – Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g., by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a straight line through the origin.
    • 7.RP.2.b – Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships.
    • 7.RP.2.c – Represent proportional relationships by equations. For example, if total cost t is proportional to the number n of items purchased at a constant price p, the relationship between the total cost and the number of items can be expressed as t = pn.
    • 7.RP.2.d – Explain what a point (x, y) on the graph of a proportional relationship means in terms of the situation, with special attention to the points (0, 0) and (1, r) where r is the unit rate.
  • 7.RP.3 – Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems. Examples: simple interest, tax, markups and markdowns, gratuities and commissions, fees, percent increase and decrease, percent error.

Grade 7 (Grade 7 The Number System)

  • 7.NS.1 – Apply and extend previous understandings of addition and subtraction to add and subtract rational numbers; represent addition and subtraction on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram.
    • 7.NS.1.a – Describe situations in which opposite quantities combine to make 0. For example, a hydrogen atom has 0 charge because its two constituents are oppositely charged.
    • 7.NS.1.b – Understand p + q as the number located a distance |q| from p, in the positive or negative direction depending on whether q is positive or negative. Show that a number and its opposite have a sum of 0 (are additive inverses). Interpret sums of rational numbers by describing real-world contexts.
    • 7.NS.1.c – Understand subtraction of rational numbers as adding the additive inverse, p – q = p + (–q). Show that the distance between two rational numbers on the number line is the absolute value of their difference, and apply this principle in real-world contexts.
    • 7.NS.1.d – Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract rational numbers.
  • 7.NS.2 – Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division and of fractions to multiply and divide rational numbers.
    • 7.NS.2.a – Understand that multiplication is extended from fractions to rational numbers by requiring that operations continue to satisfy the properties of operations, particularly the distributive property, leading to products such as (–1)(–1) = 1 and the rules for multiplying signed numbers. Interpret products of rational numbers by describing real-world contexts.
    • 7.NS.2.b – Understand that integers can be divided, provided that the divisor is not zero, and every quotient of integers (with non-zero divisor) is a rational number. If p and q are integers, then –(p/q) = (–p)/q = p/(–q). Interpret quotients of rational numbers by describing real- world contexts.
    • 7.NS.2.c – Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide rational numbers.
    • 7.NS.2.d – Convert a rational number to a decimal using long division; know that the decimal form of a rational number terminates in 0s or eventually repeats.
  • 7.NS.3 – Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers.

Grade 7 (Grade 7 Expressions And Equations)

  • 7.EE.1 – Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients.
  • 7.EE.2 – Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can shed light on the problem and how the quantities in it are related. For example, a + 0.05a = 1.05a means that “increase by 5%” is the same as “multiply by 1.05.”
  • 7.EE.3 – Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies. For example: If a woman making $25 an hour gets a 10% raise, she will make an additional 1/10 of her salary an hour, or $2.50, for a new salary of $27.50. If you want to place a towel bar 9 3/4 inches long in the center of a door that is 27 1/2 inches wide, you will need to place the bar about 9 inches from each edge; this estimate can be used as a check on the exact computation. 7.EE.4 – Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.
    • 7.EE.4.a – Solve word problems leading to equations of the form px + q = r and p(x + q) = r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Solve equations of these forms fluently. Compare an algebraic solution to an arithmetic solution, identifying the sequence of the operations used in each approach. For example, the perimeter of a rectangle is 54 cm. Its length is 6 cm. What is its width?
    • 7.EE.4.b – Solve word problems leading to inequalities of the form px + q > r or px + q < r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Graph the solution set of the inequality and interpret it in the context of the problem. For example: As a salesperson, you are paid $50 per week plus $3 per sale. This week you want your pay to be at least $100. Write an inequality for the number of sales you need to make, and describe the solutions.

Grade 7 (Grade 7 Geometry)

  • 7.G.1 – Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale.
  • 7.G.2 – Draw (freehand, with ruler and protractor, and with technology) geometric shapes with given conditions. Focus on constructing triangles from three measures of angles or sides, noticing when the conditions determine a unique triangle, more than one triangle, or no triangle.
  • 7.G.3 – Describe the two-dimensional figures that result from slicing three- dimensional figures, as in plane sections of right rectangular prisms and right rectangular pyramids.
  • 7.G.4 – Know the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle and use them to solve problems; give an informal derivation of the relationship between the circumference and area of a circle.
  • 7.G.5 – Use facts about supplementary, complementary, vertical, and adjacent angles in a multi-step problem to write and solve simple equations for an unknown angle in a figure.
  • 7.G.6 – Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms.

Grade 7 (Grade 7 Statistics And Probability)

  • 7.SP.1 – Understand that statistics can be used to gain information about a population by examining a sample of the population; generalizations about a population from a sample are valid only if the sample is representative of that population. Understand that random sampling tends to produce representative samples and support valid inferences.
  • 7.SP.2 – Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be.
  • 7.SP.3 – Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with similar variabilities, measuring the difference between the centers by expressing it as a multiple of a measure of variability. For example, the mean height of players on the basketball team is 10 cm greater than the mean height of players on the soccer team, about twice the variability (mean absolute deviation) on either team; on a dot plot, the separation between the two distributions of heights is noticeable.
  • 7.SP.4 – Use measures of center and measures of variability for numerical data from random samples to draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. For example, decide whether the words in a chapter of a seventh-grade science book are generally longer than the words in a chapter of a fourth-grade science book.
  • 7.SP.5 – Understand that the probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of the event occurring. Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around 1/2 indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event.
  • 7.SP.6 – Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data on the chance process that produces it and observing its long-run relative frequency, and predict the approximate relative frequency given the probability. For example, when rolling a number cube 600 times, predict that a 3 or 6 would be rolled roughly 200 times, but probably not exactly 200 times.
  • 7.SP.7 – Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare probabilities from a model to observed frequencies; if the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancy.
    • 7.SP.7.a – Develop a uniform probability model by assigning equal probability to all outcomes, and use the model to determine probabilities of events. For example, if a student is selected at random from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected.
    • 7.SP.7.b – Develop a probability model (which may not be uniform) by observing frequencies in data generated from a chance process. For example, find the approximate probability that a spinning penny will land heads up or that a tossed paper cup will land open-end down. Do the outcomes for the spinning penny appear to be equally likely based on the observed frequencies?
  • 7.SP.8 – Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation.
    • 7.SP.8.a – Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs.
    • 7.SP.8.b – Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., “rolling double sixes”), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event.
    • 7.SP.8.c – Design and use a simulation to generate frequencies for compound events. For example, use random digits as a simulation tool to approximate the answer to the question: If 40% of donors have type A blood, what is the probability that it will take at least 4 donors to find one with type A blood?

Grade 8 (Grade 8 Language)

  • 8.L.1 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • 8.L.1.a – Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
    • 8.L.1.b – Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice.
    • 8.L.1.c – Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood.
    • 8.L.1.d – Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.*
  • 8.L.2 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • 8.L.2.a – Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break.
    • 8.L.2.b – Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission.
    • 8.L.2.c – Spell correctly.
  • 8.L.3 – Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
    • 8.L.3.a – Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact).
  • 8.L.4 – Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    • 8.L.4.a – Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • 8.L.4.b – Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede).
    • 8.L.4.c – Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
    • 8.L.4.d – Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  • 8.L.5 – Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
    • 8.L.5.a – Interpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony, puns) in context.
    • 8.L.5.b – Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words.
    • 8.L.5.c – Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute).
  • 8.L.6 – Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Grade 8 (Grade 8 Reading Informational)

  • 8.RI.1 – Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • 8.RI.2 – Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • 8.RI.3 – Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).
  • 8.RI.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
  • 8.RI.5 – Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept.
  • 8.RI.6 – Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.
  • 8.RI.7 – Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea.
  • 8.RI.8 – Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
  • 8.RI.9 – Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.
  • 8.RI.10 – By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 8 (Grade 8 Reading Literature)

  • 8.RL.1 – Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • 8.RL.2 – Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • 8.RL.3 – Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.
  • 8.RL.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
  • 8.RL.5 – Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style.
  • 8.RL.6 – nalyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor.
  • 8.RL.7 – Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors.
  • 8.RL.8 – (Not applicable to literature)
  • 8.RL.9 – Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new.
  • 8.RL.10 – By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 8 (Grade 8 Speaking and Listening)

  • 8.SL.1 – Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • 8.SL.1.a – Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
    • 8.SL.1.b – Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
    • 8.SL.1.c – Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas.
    • 8.SL.1.d – Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented.
  • 8.SL.2 – Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation.
  • 8.SL.3 – Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
  • 8.SL.4 – Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
  • 8.SL.5 – Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.
  • 8.SL.6 – Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Grade 8 (Grade 8 Writing)

  • 8.W.1 – Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    • 8.W.1.a – Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
    • 8.W.1.b – Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
    • 8.W.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • 8.W.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • 8.W.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • 8.W.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
    • 8.W.2.a – Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 8.W.2.b – Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    • 8.W.2.c – Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • 8.W.2.d – Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • 8.W.2.e – Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • 8.W.2.f – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
  • 8.W.3 – Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • 8.W.3.a – Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    • 8.W.3.b – Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • 8.W.3.c – Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events.
    • 8.W.3.d – Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
    • 8.W.3.e – Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
  • 8.W.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • 8.W.5 – With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
  • 8.W.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
  • 8.W.7 – Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
  • 8.W.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • 8.W.9 – Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • 8.W.9.a – Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new”).
    • 8.W.9.b – Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced”).
  • 8.W.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 8 (Grade 8 The Number System)

  • 8.NS.1 – Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually, and convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number.
  • 8.NS.2 – Use rational approximations of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line diagram, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., π2). For example, by truncating the decimal expansion of √2, show that √2 is between 1 and 2, then between 1.4 and 1.5, and explain how to continue on to get better approximations.

Grade 8 (Grade 8 Expressions And Equations)

  • 8.EE.1 – Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 32 × 3–5 = 3–3 = 1/33 = 1/27.
  • 8.EE.2 – Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x2 = p and x3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that √2 is irrational.
  • 8.EE.3 – Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 × 108 and the population of the world as 7 × 109, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger.
  • 8.EE.4 – Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.
  • 8.EE.5 – Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.
  • 8.EE.6 – Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.
  • 8.EE.7 – Solve linear equations in one variable.
    • 8.EE.7.a – Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).
    • 8.EE.7.b – Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms.
  • 8.EE.8 – Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.
    • 8.EE.8.a – Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.
    • 8.EE.8.b – Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6.
    • 8.EE.8.c – Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair.

Grade 8 (Grade 8 Functions)

  • 8.F.1 – Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output.1
  • 8.F.2 – Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change.
  • 8.F.3 – Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function A = s2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line.
  • 8.F.4 – Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.
  • 8.F.5 – Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.

Grade 8 (Grade 8 Geometry)

  • 8.G.1 – Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations:
    • 8.G.1.a – Lines are taken to lines, and line segments to line segments of the same length.
    • 8.G.1.b – Angles are taken to angles of the same measure.
    • 8.G.1.c – Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines.
  • 8.G.2 – Understand that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them.
  • 8.G.3 – Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on two-dimensional figures using coordinates.
  • 8.G.4 – Understand that a two-dimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar two- dimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them.
  • 8.G.5 – Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles. For example, arrange three copies of the same triangle so that the sum of the three angles appears to form a line, and give an argument in terms of transversals why this is so.
  • 8.G.6 – Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse.
  • 8.G.7 – Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions.
  • 8.G.8 – Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system.
  • 8.G.9 – Know the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

Grade 8 (Grade 8 Statistics And Probability)

  • 8.SP.1 – Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.
  • 8.SP.2 – Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.
  • 8.SP.3 – Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment, interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in mature plant height.
  • 8.SP.4 – Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. For example, collect data from students in your class on whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those who have a curfew also tend to have chores?

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Language)

  • 9-10.L.1 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • 9-10.L.1.a – Use parallel structure.*
    • 9-10.L.1.b – Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.
  • 9-10.L.2 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • 9-10.L.2.a – Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
    • 9-10.L.2.b – Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
    • 9-10.L.2.c – Spell correctly.
  • 9-10.L.3 – Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
    • 9-10.L.3.a – Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook, Turabian’s Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.
  • 9-10.L.4 – Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    • 9-10.L.4.a – Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • 9-10.L.4.b – Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).
    • 9-10.L.4.c – Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
    • 9-10.L.4.d – Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  • 9-10.L.5 – Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
    • 9-10.L.5.a – Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
    • 9-10.L.5.b – Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
  • 9-10.L.6 – Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Reading History Social Studies)

  • 9-10.RH.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.
  • 9-10.RH.2 – Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.
  • 9-10.RH.3 – Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them.
  • 9-10.RH.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social science.
  • 9-10.RH.5 – Analyze how a text uses structure to emphasize key points or advance an explanation or analysis.
  • 9-10.RH.6 – Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts.
  • 9-10.RH.7 – Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e.g., charts, research data) with qualitative analysis in print or digital text.
  • 9-10.RH.8 – Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claims.
  • 9-10.RH.9 – Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources.
  • 9-10.RH.10 – By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Reading Informational)

  • 9-10.RI.1 – Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • 9-10.RI.2 – Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • 9-10.RI.3 – Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.
  • 9-10.RI.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).
  • 9-10.RI.5 – Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
  • 9-10.RI.6 – Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • 9-10.RI.7 – Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.
  • 9-10.RI.8 – Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.
  • 9-10.RI.9 – Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech, King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”), including how they address related themes and concepts.
  • 9-10.RI.10 – By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Reading Literature)

  • 9-10.RL.1 – Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • 9-10.RL.2 – Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • 9-10.RL.3 – Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.
  • 9-10.RL.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).
  • 9-10.RL.5 – Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.
  • 9-10.RL.6 – Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.
  • 9-10.RL.7 – Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).
  • 9-10.RL.8 – (Not applicable to literature)
  • 9-10.RL.9 – Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).
  • 9-10.RL.10 – By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Reading Science Technical)

  • 9-10.RST.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.
  • 9-10.RST.2 – Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the text’s explanation or depiction of a complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide an accurate summary of the text.
  • 9-10.RST.3 – Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text.
  • 9-10.RST.4 – Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9–10 texts and topics.
  • 9-10.RST.5 – Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).
  • 9-10.RST.6 – Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, defining the question the author seeks to address.
  • 9-10.RST.7 – Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
  • 9-10.RST.8 – Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem.
  • 9-10.RST.9 – Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.
  • 9-10.RST.10 – By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Speaking & Listening)

  • 9-10.SL.1 – Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
    • 9-10.SL.1.a – Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    • 9-10.SL.1.b – Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
    • 9-10.SL.1.c – Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
    • 9-10.SL.1.d – Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.
  • 9-10.SL.2 – Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.
  • 9-10.SL.3 – Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.
  • 9-10.SL.4 – Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.
  • 9-10.SL.5 – Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.
  • 9-10.SL.6 – Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Writing)

  • 9-10.W.1 – Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
    • 9-10.W.1.a – Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • 9-10.W.1.b – Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
    • 9-10.W.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    • 9-10.W.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 9-10.W.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • 9-10.W.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
    • 9-10.W.2.a – Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 9-10.W.2.b – Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    • 9-10.W.2.c – Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    • 9-10.W.2.d – Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
    • 9-10.W.2.e – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 9-10.W.2.f – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  • 9-10.W.3 – Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • 9-10.W.3.a – Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    • 9-10.W.3.b – Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • 9-10.W.3.c – Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
    • 9-10.W.3.d – Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
    • 9-10.W.3.e – Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
  • 9-10.W.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • 9-10.W.5 – Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
  • 9-10.W.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.
  • 9-10.W.7 – Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
  • 9-10.W.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • 9-10.W.9 – Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • 9-10.W.9.a – Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
    • 9-10.W.9.b – Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).
  • 9-10.W.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Writing HS S T)

  • 9-10.WHST.1 – Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
    • 9-10.WHST.1.a – Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • 9-10.WHST.1.b – Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
    • 9-10.WHST.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    • 9-10.WHST.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 9-10.WHST.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
  • 9-10.WHST.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.a – Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.b – Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.c – Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.d – Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.e – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.f – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  • 9-10.WHST.3 – (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement)
  • 9-10.WHST.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • 9-10.WHST.5 – Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
  • 9-10.WHST.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.
  • 9-10.WHST.7 – Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
  • 9-10.WHST.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • 9-10.WHST.9 – Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  • 9-10.WHST.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Kindergarten (Kindergarten Social Studies)

  • Students understand that being a good citizen involves acting in certain ways.
  • Follow rules, such as sharing and taking turns, and know the consequences of breaking them.
  • Learn examples of honesty, courage, determination, individual responsibility, and patriotism in American and world history from stories and folklore.
  • Know beliefs and related behaviors of characters in stories from times past and understand the consequences of the characters’ actions.
  • Students recognize national and state symbols and icons such as the national and state flags, the bald eagle, and the Statue of Liberty.
  • Students match simple descriptions of work that people do and the names of related jobs at the school, in the local community, and from historical accounts.
  • Students compare and contrast the locations of people, places, and environments and describe their characteristics.
  • Determine the relative locations of objects using the terms near/far, left/right, and behind/in front.
  • Distinguish between land and water on maps and globes and locate general areas referenced in historical legends and stories.
  • Identify traffic symbols and map symbols (e.g., those for land, water, roads, cities).
  • Construct maps and models of neighborhoods, incorporating such structures as police and fire stations, airports, banks, hospitals, supermarkets, harbors, schools, homes, places of worship, and transportation lines.
  • Demonstrate familiarity with the school’s layout, environs, and the jobs people do there.
    Students put events in temporal order using a calendar, placing days, weeks, and months in proper order.
  • Students understand that history relates to events, people, and places of other times.
  • Identify the purposes of, and the people and events honored in, commemorative holidays, including the human struggles that were the basis for the events
  • Know the triumphs in American legends and historical accounts through the stories of such people as Pocahontas, George Washington, Booker T. Washington, Daniel Boone, and Benjamin Franklin.
  • Understand how people lived in earlier times and how their lives would be different today

Kindergarten (Kindergarten Science)

1. Properties of materials can be observed, measured, and predicted.
1a. Students know objects can be described in terms of the materials they are made of (e.g., clay, cloth, paper) and their physical properties (e.g., color, size, shape, weight, texture, flexibility, attraction to magnets, floating, sinking).
1b. Students know water can be a liquid or a solid and can be made to change back and forth from one form to the other.
1c. Students know water left in an open container evaporates (goes into the air) but water in a closed container does not.
2. Different types of plants and animals inhabit the earth.
2a. Students know how to observe and describe similarities and differences in the appearance and behavior of plants and animals (e.g., seed-bearing plants, birds, fish, insects).
2b. Students know stories sometimes give plants and animals attributes they do not really have.
2c. Students know how to identify major structures of common plants and animals (e.g., stems, leaves, roots, arms, wings, legs).
3. Earth is composed of land, air, and water.
3a. Students know characteristics of mountains, rivers, oceans, valleys, deserts, and local landforms.
3b. Students know changes in weather occur from day to day and across seasons, affecting Earth and its inhabitants.
3c. Students know how to identify resources from Earth that are used in everyday life and understand that many resources can be conserved.
4. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.
4a. Observe common objects by using the five senses.
4b. Describe the properties of common objects.
4c. Describe the relative position of objects by using one reference (e.g., above or below).
4d. Compare and sort common objects by one physical attribute (e.g., color, shape, texture, size, weight).
4e. Communicate observations orally and through drawings.

Grade 1 (Grade 1 Social Studies)

  • Students describe the rights and individual responsibilities of citizenship.
  • Understand the rule-making process in a direct democracy (everyone votes on the rules) and in a representative democracy (an elected group of people makes the rules), giving examples of both systems in their classroom, school, and community.
  • Understand the elements of fair play and good sportsmanship, respect for the rights and opinions of others, and respect for rules by which we live, including the meaning of the “Golden Rule.”
  • Students compare and contrast the absolute and relative locations of places and people and describe the physical and/ or human characteristics of places.
  • Locate on maps and globes their local community, California, the United States, the seven continents, and the four oceans.
  • Compare the information that can be derived from a three-dimensional model to the information that can be derived from a picture of the same location.
  • Construct a simple map, using cardinal directions and map symbols.
    Describe how location, weather, and physical environment affect the way people live, including the effects on their food, clothing, shelter, transportation, and recreation.
  • Students know and understand the symbols, icons, and traditions of the United States that provide continuity and a sense of community across time.
  • Recite the Pledge of Allegiance and sing songs that express American ideals (e.g., “America”).
  • Understand the significance of our national holidays and the heroism and achievements of the people associated with them.
  • Identify American symbols, landmarks, and essential documents, such as the flag, bald eagle, Statue of Liberty, U.S. Constitution, and Declaration of Independence, and know the people and events associated with them.
  • Students compare and contrast everyday life in different times and places around the world and recognize that some aspects of people, places, and things change over time while others stay the same.
  • Examine the structure of schools and communities in the past.
  • Study transportation methods of earlier days.
  • Recognize similarities and differences of earlier generations in such areas as work (inside and outside the home), dress, manners, stories, games, and festivals, drawing from biographies, oral histories, and folklore.
  • Students describe the human characteristics of familiar places and the varied backgrounds of American citizens and residents in those places.
  • Recognize the ways in which they are all part of the same community, sharing principles, goals, and traditions despite their varied ancestry; the forms of diversity in their school and community; and the benefits and challenges of a diverse population.
  • Understand the ways in which American Indians and immigrants have helped define Californian and American culture.
  • Compare the beliefs, customs, ceremonies, traditions, and social practices of the varied cultures, drawing from folklore.
  • Students understand basic economic concepts and the role of individual choice in a free-market economy.
  • Understand the concept of exchange and the use of money to purchase goods and services.
  • Identify the specialized work that people do to manufacture, transport, and market goods and services and the contributions of those who work in the home.

Grade 1 (Grade 1 Science)

1. Materials come in different forms (states), including solids, liquids, and gases.
1a. Students know solids, liquids, and gases have different properties.
1b. Students know the properties of substances can change when the substances are mixed, cooled, or heated.
2. Plants and animals meet their needs in different ways.
2a. Students know different plants and animals inhabit different kinds of environments and have external features(VETO!!) that help them thrive in different kinds of places.
2b. Students know both plants and animals need water, animals need food, and plants need light.
2c. Students know animals eat plants or other animals for food and may also use plants or even other animals for shelter and nesting.
2d. Students know how to infer what animals eat from the shapes of their teeth (e.g., sharp teeth: eats meat; flat teeth: eats plants).
2e. Students know roots are associated with the intake of water and soil nutrients and green leaves are associated with making food from sunlight.
3. Weather can be observed, measured, and described.
3a. Students know how to use simple tools (e.g., thermometer, wind vane) to measure weather conditions and record changes from day to day and across the seasons.
3b. Students know that the weather changes from day to day but that trends in temperature or of rain (or snow) tend to be predictable during a season.
3c. Students know the sun warms the land, air, and water.
4. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.
4a. Draw pictures that portray some features of the thing being described.
4b. Record observations and data with pictures, numbers, or written statements.
4c. Record observations on a bar graph.
4d. Describe the relative position of objects by using two references (e.g., above and next to, below and left of).
4e. Make new observations when discrepancies exist between two descriptions of the same object or phenomenon.

Grade 2 (Grade 2 Social Studies)

  • Understand the role and interdependence of buyers (consumers) and sellers (producers) of goods and services.
  • Understand how limits on resources affect production and consumption (what to produce and what to consume).
  • Students understand the importance of individual action and character and explain how heroes from long ago and the recent past have made a difference in others’ lives (e.g., from biographies of Abraham Lincoln, Louis Pasteur, Sitting Bull, George Washington Carver, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Golda Meir, Jackie Robinson, Sally Ride).

Grade 2 (Grade 2 Science)

1. The motion of objects can be observed and measured.
1a. Students know the position of an object can be described by locating it in relation to another object or to the background.
1b. Students know an object’s motion can be described by recording the change in position of the object over time.
1c. Students know the way to change how something is moving is by giving it a push or a pull. The size of the change is related to the strength, or the amount of force, of the push or pull.
1d. Students know tools and machines are used to apply pushes and pulls (forces) to make things move.
1e. Students know objects fall to the ground unless something holds them up.
1f. Students know magnets can be used to make some objects move without being touched.
1g. Students know sound is made by vibrating objects and can be described by its pitch and volume.
2. Plants and animals have predictable life cycles.
2a. Students know that organisms reproduce offspring of their own kind and that the offspring resemble their parents and one another.
2b. Students know the sequential stages of life cycles are different for different animals, such as butterflies, frogs, and mice.
2c. Students know many characteristics of an organism are inherited from the parents. Some characteristics are caused or influenced by the environment.
2d. Students know there is variation among individuals of one kind within a population.
2e. Students know light, gravity, touch, or environmental stress can affect the germination, growth, and development of plants.
3. Earth is made of materials that have distinct properties and provide resources for human activities.
3a. Students know how to compare the physical properties of different kinds of rocks and know that rock is composed of different combinations of minerals.
3b. Students know smaller rocks come from the breakage and weathering of larger rocks.
3c. Students know that soil is made partly from weathered rock and partly from organic materials and that soils differ in their color, texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support the growth of many kinds of plants.
3d. Students know that fossils provide evidence about the plants and animals that lived long ago and that scientists learn about the past history of Earth by studying fossils.
3e. Students know rock, water, plants, and soil provide many resources, including food, fuel, and building materials, that humans use.
4. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.
4a. Make predictions based on observed patterns and not random guessing.
4b. Measure length, weight, temperature, and liquid volume with appropriate tools and express those measurements in standard metric system units.
4c. Compare and sort common objects according to two or more physical attributes (e. g., color, shape, texture, size, weight).
4d. Write or draw descriptions of a sequence of steps, events, and observations.
4e. Construct bar graphs to record data, using appropriately labeled axes.
4f. Use magnifiers or microscopes to observe and draw descriptions of small objects or small features of objects.
4g. Follow oral instructions for a scientific investigation.

Grade 3 (Grade 3 Social Studies)

  • Students describe the physical and human geography and use maps, tables, graphs, photographs, and charts to organize information about people, places, and environments in a spatial context.
  • Identify geographical features in their local region (e.g., deserts, mountains, valleys, hills, coastal areas, oceans, lakes).
  • Trace the ways in which people have used the resources of the local region and modified the physical environment (e.g., a dam constructed upstream changed a river or coastline).
  • Students describe the American Indian nations in their local region long ago and in the recent past.
  • Describe national identities, religious beliefs, customs, and various folklore traditions.
  • Discuss the ways in which physical geography, including climate, influenced how the local Indian nations adapted to their natural environment (e.g., how they obtained food, clothing, tools).
  • Describe the economy and systems of government, particularly those with tribal constitutions, and their relationship to federal and state governments.
  • Discuss the interaction of new settlers with the already established Indians of the region.
  • Students draw from historical and community resources to organize the sequence of local historical events and describe how each period of settlement left its mark on the land.
    Research the explorers who visited here, the newcomers who settled here, and the people who continue to come to the region, including their cultural and religious traditions and contributions.
  • Describe the economies established by settlers and their influence on the present-day economy, with emphasis on the importance of private property and entrepreneurship.
    Trace why their community was established, how individuals and families contributed to its founding and development, and how the community has changed over time, drawing on maps, photographs, oral histories, letters, newspapers, and other primary sources.
  • Students understand the role of rules and laws in our daily lives and the basic structure of the U.S. government.
  • Determine the reasons for rules, laws, and the U.S. Constitution; the role of citizenship in the promotion of rules and laws; and the consequences for people who violate rules and laws.
  • Discuss the importance of public virtue and the role of citizens, including how to participate in a classroom, in the community, and in civic life.
  • Know the histories of important local and national landmarks, symbols, and essential documents that create a sense of community among citizens and exemplify cherished ideals (e.g., the U.S. flag, the bald eagle, the Statue of Liberty, the U.S. Constitution, the
  • Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Capitol).
  • Understand the three branches of government, with an emphasis on local government.
  • Describe the ways in which California, the other states, and sovereign American Indian tribes contribute to the making of our nation and participate in the federal system of government.
  • Describe the lives of American heroes who took risks to secure our freedoms (e.g., Anne Hutchinson, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, Martin Luther King, Jr.).
  • Students demonstrate basic economic reasoning skills and an understanding of the economy of the local region.
  • Describe the ways in which local producers have used and are using natural resources, human resources, and capital resources to produce goods and services in the past and the present.
  • Understand that some goods are made locally, some elsewhere in the United States, and some abroad.
  • Understand that individual economic choices involve trade-offs and the evaluation of benefits and costs.
  • Discuss the relationship of students’ “work” in school and their personal human capital.

Grade 3 (Grade 3 Science)

1. Energy and matter have multiple forms and can be changed from one form to another.
1a. Energy comes from the Sun to Earth in the form of light.
1b. Sources of stored energy take many forms, such as food, fuel, and batteries.
1c. Machines and living things convert stored energy to motion and heat.
1d. Energy can be carried from one place to another by waves, such as water waves and sound waves, by electric current, and by moving objects.
1e. Matter has three forms: solid, liquid, and gas.
1f. Evaporation and melting are changes that occur when the objects are heated.
1g. When two or more substances are combined, a new substance may be formed with properties that are different from those of the original materials.
1h. All matter is made of small particles called atoms, too small to see with the naked eye.
1i. People thought earth, wind, fire, and water were basic elements. Science shows 100+ elements.
2. Light has a source and travels in a direction.
2a. Sunlight can be blocked to create shadows.
2b. Light is reflected from mirrors and surfaces.
2c. The color of light striking an object affects the way the object is seen.
2d. An object is seen when light traveling from the object enters the eye.
3. Adaptations in physical structure or behavior may improve an organism’s chance for survival.
3a. Students know plants and animals have structures that serve different functions in growth, survival, and reproduction.
3b. Students know examples of diverse life forms in different environments, such as oceans, deserts, tundra, forests, grasslands, and wetlands.
3c. Students know living things cause changes in the environment in which they live: some of these changes are detrimental to the organism or other organisms, and some are beneficial.
3d. Students know when the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.
3e. Students know that some kinds of organisms that once lived on Earth have completely disappeared and that some of those resembled others that are alive today.
4. Objects in the sky move in regular and predictable patterns.
4a. Patterns of stars stay the same, although they appear to move across the sky nightly, and different stars can be seen in different seasons.
4b. The way in which the Moon’s appearance changes during the four-week lunar cycle.
4c. Telescopes magnify the appearance of distant objects in the sky. The # of stars that can be seen through telescopes is greater than the number that can be seen by the unaided eye.
4d. Earth is one of several planets that orbit the Sun and that the Moon orbits Earth.
4e. The position of the Sun in the sky changes during the course of the day and from season to season.
5. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.
5a. Repeat observations to improve accuracy. Results of similar investigations seldom turn out exactly the same b/c of differences in things being investigated, methods, or uncertainty in the obs.
5b. Differentiate evidence from opinion and know that scientists do not rely on claims or conclusions unless they are backed by confirmed observations.
5c. Use numerical data in describing and comparing objects, events, and measurements.
5d. Predict the outcome of a simple investigation and compare the result with the prediction.
5e. Collect data in an investigation and analyze those data to develop a logical conclusion.

Grade 4 (Grade 4 Social Studies)

  • Students demonstrate an understanding of the physical and human geographic features that define places and regions in California.
  • Explain and use the coordinate grid system of latitude and longitude to determine the absolute locations of places in California and on Earth.
  • Distinguish between the North and South Poles; the equator and the prime meridian; the tropics; and the hemispheres, using coordinates to plot locations.
  • Identify the state capital and describe the various regions of California, including how their characteristics and physical environments (e.g., water, landforms, vegetation, climate) affect human activity.
  • Identify the locations of the Pacific Ocean, rivers, valleys, and mountain passes and explain their effects on the growth of towns.
  • Use maps, charts, and pictures to describe how communities in California vary in land use, vegetation, wildlife, climate, population density, architecture, services, and transportation.
  • Students describe the social, political, cultural, and economic life and interactions among people of California from the pre-Columbian societies to the Spanish mission and Mexican rancho periods.
  • Discuss the major nations of California Indians, including their geographic distribution, economic activities, legends, and religious beliefs; and describe how they depended on, adapted to, and modified the physical environment by cultivation of land and use of sea resources.
  • Identify the early land and sea routes to, and European settlements in, California with a focus on the exploration of the North Pacific (e.g., by Captain James Cook, Vitus Bering, Juan Cabrillo), noting especially the importance of mountains, deserts, ocean currents, and wind patterns.
  • Describe the Spanish exploration and colonization of California, including the relationships among soldiers, missionaries, and Indians (e.g., Juan Crespi, Junipero Serra, Gaspar de Portola)
  • Describe the mapping of, geographic basis of, and economic factors in the placement and function of the Spanish missions; and understand how the mission system expanded the influence of Spain and Catholicism throughout New Spain and Latin America.
  • Describe the daily lives of the people, native and nonnative, who occupied the presidios, missions, ranchos, and pueblos.
  • Discuss the role of the Franciscans in changing the economy of California from a hunter-gatherer economy to an agricultural economy.
  • Describe the effects of the Mexican War for Independence on Alta California, including its effects on the territorial boundaries of North America.
  • Discuss the period of Mexican rule in California and its attributes, including land grants, secularization of the missions, and the rise of the rancho economy.
  • Students explain the economic, social, and political life in California from the establishment of the Bear Flag Republic through the Mexican-American War, the Gold Rush, and the granting of statehood.
  • Identify the locations of Mexican settlements in California and those of other settlements, including Fort Ross and Sutter’s Fort.
  • Compare how and why people traveled to California and the routes they traveled (e.g., James Beckwourth, John Bidwell, John C. Fremont, Pio Pico).
  • Analyze the effects of the Gold Rush on settlements, daily life, politics, and the physical environment (e.g., using biographies of John Sutter, Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, Louise Clapp).
  • Study the lives of women who helped build early California (e.g., Biddy Mason).
  • Discuss how California became a state and how its new government differed from those during the Spanish and Mexican periods.
  • Students explain how California became an agricultural and industrial power, tracing the transformation of the California economy and its political and cultural development since the 1850s.
  • Understand the story and lasting influence of the Pony Express, Overland Mail Service, Western Union, and the building of the transcontinental railroad, including the contributions of Chinese workers to its construction.
  • Explain how the Gold Rush transformed the economy of California, including the types of products produced and consumed, changes in towns (e.g., Sacramento, San Francisco), and economic conflicts between diverse groups of people.
  • Discuss immigration and migration to California between 1850 and 1900, including the diverse composition of those who came; the countries of origin and their relative locations; and conflicts and accords among the diverse groups (e.g., the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act).
  • Describe rapid American immigration, internal migration, settlement, and the growth of towns and cities (e.g., Los Angeles).
  • Discuss the effects of the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl, and World War II on California.
  • Describe the development and locations of new industries since the nineteenth century, such as the aerospace industry, electronics industry, large-scale commercial agriculture and irrigation projects, the oil and automobile industries, communications and defense industries, and important trade links with the Pacific Basin.
  • Trace the evolution of California’s water system into a network of dams, aqueducts, and reservoirs.
  • Describe the history and development of California’s public education system, including universities and community colleges.
  • Analyze the impact of twentieth-century Californians on the nation’s artistic and cultural development, including the rise of the entertainment industry (e.g., Louis B. Meyer, Walt Disney, John Steinbeck, Ansel Adams, Dorothea Lange, John Wayne).
  • Students understand the structures, functions, and powers of the local, state, and federal governments as described in the U.S. Constitution.
  • Discuss what the U.S. Constitution is and why it is important (i.e., a written document that defines the structure and purpose of the U.S. government and describes the shared powers of federal, state, and local governments).
  • Understand the purpose of the California Constitution, its key principles, and its relationship to the U.S. Constitution.
  • Describe the similarities (e.g., written documents, rule of law, consent of the governed, three separate branches) and differences (e.g., scope of jurisdiction, limits on government powers, use of the military) among federal, state, and local governments.
  • Explain the structures and functions of state governments, including the roles and responsibilities of their elected officials.
  • Describe the components of California’s governance structure (e.g., cities and towns, Indian rancherias and reservations, counties, school districts).

Grade 4 (Grade 4 Science)

1. Electricity and magnetism are related effects that have useful applications in everyday life.
1a. Design and build simple series and parallel circuits by using wires, batteries, and bulbs.
1b. Build a simple compass and use it to detect magnetic effects, including Earth’s magnetic field.
1c. Electric currents produce magnetic fields and know how to build a simple electromagnet.
1d. Role of electromagnets in the construction of electric motors, electric generators, and simple devices, such as doorbells and earphones.
1e. Electrically charged objects attract or repel each other.
1f. Magnets have two poles (north and south) and that like poles repel each other while unlike poles attract each other.
1g. Electrical energy can be converted to heat, light, and motion.
2. All organisms need energy and matter to live and grow.
2a. Students know plants are the primary source of matter and energy entering most food chains.
2b. Students know producers and consumers (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, and decomposers) are related in food chains and food webs and may compete with each other for resources in an ecosystem.
2c. Students know decomposers, including many fungi, insects, and microorganisms, recycle matter from dead plants and animals.
3. Living organisms depend on one another and on their environment for survival.
3a. Students know ecosystems can be characterized by their living and nonliving components.
3b. Students know that in any particular environment, some kinds of plants and animals survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.
3c. Students know many plants depend on animals for pollination and seed dispersal, and animals depend on plants for food and shelter.
3d. Students know that most microorganisms do not cause disease and that many are beneficial.
4. The properties of rocks and minerals reflect the processes that formed them.
4a. Differentiate among igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks by referring to their properties and methods of formation (the rock cycle).
4b. Identify common rock-forming minerals (including quartz, calcite, feldspar, mica, and hornblende) and ore minerals by using a table of diagnostic properties.
5. Waves, wind, water, and ice shape and reshape Earth’s land surface.
5a. Some changes in the earth are due to slow processes, such as erosion, and some changes are due to rapid processes, such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.
5b. Natural processes, including freezing and thawing and the growth of roots, cause rocks to break down into smaller pieces.
5c. Moving water erodes landforms, reshaping the land by taking it away from some places and depositing it as pebbles, sand, silt, and mud in other places (weathering, transport, and deposition).
6. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.
6a. Differentiate observation from inference (interpretation) and know scientists’ explanations come partly from what they observe and partly from how they interpret their observations.
6b. Measure and estimate the weight, length, or volume of objects.
6c. Formulate and justify predictions based on cause-and-effect relationships.
6d. Conduct multiple trials to test a prediction. Describe the relationships between predictions/results.
6e. Construct and interpret graphs from measurements.
6f. Follow a set of written instructions for a scientific investigation.

Grade 5 (Grade 5 Social Studies)

  • Students describe the major pre-Columbian settlements, including the cliff dwellers and pueblo people of the desert Southwest, the American Indians of the Pacific Northwest, the nomadic nations of the Great Plains, and the woodland peoples east of the Mississippi River.
  • Describe how geography and climate influenced the way various nations lived and adjusted to the natural environment, including locations of villages, the distinct structures that they built, and how they obtained food, clothing, tools, and utensils.
  • Describe their varied customs and folklore traditions.
  • Explain their varied economies and systems of government.
  • Students trace the routes of early explorers and describe the early explorations of the Americas.
  • Describe the entrepreneurial characteristics of early explorers (e.g., Christopher Columbus, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado) and the technological developments that made sea exploration by latitude and longitude possible (e.g., compass, sextant, astrolabe, seaworthy ships, chronometers, gunpowder).
  • Explain the aims, obstacles, and accomplishments of the explorers, sponsors, and leaders of key European expeditions and the reasons Europeans chose to explore and colonize the world (e.g., the Spanish Reconquista, the Protestant Reformation, the Counter Reformation).
  • Trace the routes of the major land explorers of the United States, the distances traveled by explorers, and the Atlantic trade routes that linked Africa, the West Indies, the British colonies, and Europe.
  • Locate on maps of North and South America land claimed by Spain, France, England, Portugal, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Russia.
  • Students describe the cooperation and conflict that existed among the American Indians and between the Indian nations and the new settlers.
  • Describe the competition among the English, French, Spanish, Dutch, and Indian nations for control of North America.
  • Students describe the cooperation and conflict that existed among the American Indians and between the Indian nations and the new settlers.
  • Examine the conflicts before the Revolutionary War (e.g., the Pequot and King Philip’s Wars in New England, the Powhatan Wars in Virginia, the French and Indian War).
  • Discuss the role of broken treaties and massacres and the factors that led to the Indians defeat, including the resistance of Indian nations to encroachments and assimilation (e.g., the story of the Trail of Tears).
  • Describe the inernecine Indian conflicts, including the competing claims for control of lands.
  • Explain the influence and achievements of significant leaders of the time (e.g., John Marshall, Andrew Jackson, Chief Tecumseh, Chief Logan, Chief John Ross, Sequoyah).
  • Students understand the political, religious, social, and economic institutions that evolved in the colonial era.
  • Understand the influence of location and physical setting on the founding of the original 13 colonies, and identify on a map the locations of the colonies and of the American Indian nations already inhabiting these areas.
  • Identify the major individuals and groups responsible for the founding of the various colonies and the reasons for their founding (e.g., John Smith, Virginia; Roger Williams, Rhode Island; William Penn, Pennsylvania; Lord Baltimore, Maryland; William Bradford, Plymouth; John Winthrop, Massachusetts).
  • Describe the religious aspects of the earliest colonies (e.g., Puritanism in Massachusetts, Anglicanism in Virginia, Catholicism in Maryland, Quakerism in Pennsylvania).
  • Identify the significance and leaders of the First Great Awakening, which marked a shift in religious ideas, practices, and allegiances in the colonial period, the growth of religious toleration, and free exercise of religion.
  • Understand how the British colonial period created the basis for the development of political self-government and a free-market economic system and the differences between the British, Spanish, and French colonial systems.
  • Describe the introduction of slavery into America, the responses of slave families to their condition, the ongoing struggle between proponents and opponents of slavery, and the gradual institutionalization of slavery in the South.
  • Explain the early democratic ideas and practices that emerged during the colonial period, including the significance of representative assemblies and town meetings.
    Students explain the causes of the American Revolution.
  • Understand how political, religious, and economic ideas and interests brought about the Revolution (e.g., resistance to imperial policy, the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, taxes on tea, Coercive Acts).
  • Know the significance of the first and second Continental Congresses and of the
  • Committees of Correspondence.
  • Understand the people and events associated with the drafting and signing of the
  • Declaration of Independence and the document’s significance, including the key political concepts it embodies, the origins of those concepts, and its role in severing ties with Great Britain.
  • Describe the views, lives, and impact of key individuals during this period (e.g., King George III, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams).
  • Students understand the course and consequences of the American Revolution.
    Identify and map the major military battles, campaigns, and turning points of the Revolutionary War, the roles of the American and British leaders, and the Indian leaders’ alliances on both sides.
  • Describe the contributions of France and other nations and of individuals to the outcome of the Revolution (e.g., Benjamin Franklin’s negotiations with the French, the French navy, the Treaty of Paris, The Netherlands, Russia, the Marquis Marie Joseph de Lafayette, Tadeusz Ko´sciuszko, Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben).
  • Identify the different roles women played during the Revolution (e.g., Abigail Adams,
  • Martha Washington, Molly Pitcher, Phillis Wheatley, Mercy Otis Warren).
  • Understand the personal impact and economic hardship of the war on families, problems of financing the war, wartime inflation, and laws against hoarding goods and materials and profiteering.
  • Explain how state constitutions that were established after 1776 embodied the ideals of the American Revolution and helped serve as models for the U.S. Constitution.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the significance of land policies developed under the Continental Congress (e.g., sale of western lands, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787) and those policies’ impact on American Indians’ land.
  • Understand how the ideals set forth in the Declaration of Independence changed the way people viewed slavery.
  • Students describe the people and events associated with the development of the U.S.
  • Constitution and analyze the Constitution’s significance as the foundation of the American republic.
  • List the shortcomings of the Articles of Confederation as set forth by their critics.
  • Explain the significance of the new Constitution of 1787, including the struggles over its ratification and the reasons for the addition of the Bill of Rights.
  • Understand the fundamental principles of American constitutional democracy, including
  • how the government derives its power from the people and the primacy of individual liberty.
  • Understand how the Constitution is designed to secure our liberty by both empowering and limiting central government and compare the powers granted to citizens, Congress, the president, and the Supreme Court with those reserved to the states.
  • Discuss the meaning of the American creed that calls on citizens to safeguard the liberty of individual Americans within a unified nation, to respect the rule of law, and to preserve the Constitution.
  • Know the songs that express American ideals (e.g., “America the Beautiful,” “The Star Spangled Banner”).
  • Students trace the colonization, immigration, and settlement patterns of the American people from 1789 to the mid-1800s, with emphasis on the role of economic incentives, effects of the physical and political geography, and transportation systems.
  • Discuss the waves of immigrants from Europe between 1789 and 1850 and their modes of transportation into the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys and through the Cumberland Gap (e.g., overland wagons, canals, flatboats, steamboats).
  • Name the states and territories that existed in 1850 and identify their locations and major geographical features (e.g., mountain ranges, principal rivers, dominant plant regions).
    Demonstrate knowledge of the explorations of the trans-Mississippi West following the Louisiana Purchase (e.g., Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, Zebulon Pike, John Fremont).
  • Discuss the experiences of settlers on the overland trails to the West (e.g., location of the routes; purpose of the journeys; the influence of the terrain, rivers, vegetation, and climate; life in the territories at the end of these trails).
  • Describe the continued migration of Mexican settlers into Mexican territories of the West and Southwest.
  • Relate how and when California, Texas, Oregon, and other western lands became part of the United States, including the significance of the Texas War for Independence and the Mexican-American War.
  • Students know the location of the current 50 states and the names of their capitals.

Grade 5 (Grade 5 Science)

1. Elements and their combinations account for all the varied types of matter in the world.
1a. During chemical reactions atoms in the reactants rearrange to form products with different properties.
1b. All matter is made of atoms, which may combine to form molecules.
1c. Metals have properties in common. Some metals are pure elements; others are a combination. (VETO!!!)
1d. Each element is made of one kind of atom and that the elements are organized in the periodic table by their chemical properties.
1e. Atoms and molecules often occur in well-ordered arrays.
1f. Differences in chemical and physical properties of substances are used to separate mixtures and identify compounds.
1g. Properties of solid, liquid, and gaseous substances, such as sugar, water, helium, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide.
1h. Living organisms and most materials are composed of just a few elements.
1i. Common properties of salts, such as sodium chloride (NaCl).
2. Plants and animals have structures for respiration, digestion, waste disposal, and transport of materials.
2a. Students know many multicellular organisms have specialized structures to support the transport of materials.
2b. Students know how blood circulates through the heart chambers, lungs, and body and how carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) are exchanged in the lungs and tissues.
2c. Students know the sequential steps of digestion and the roles of teeth and the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and colon in the function of the digestive system.
2d. Students know the role of the kidney in removing cellular waste from blood and converting it into urine, which is stored in the bladder.
2e. Students know how sugar, water, and minerals are transported in a vascular plant.
2f. Students know plants use carbon dioxide (CO2) and energy from sunlight to build molecules of sugar and release oxygen.
2g. Students know plant and animal cells break down sugar to obtain energy, a process resulting in carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (respiration).
3. Water on Earth moves between the oceans and land through the processes of evaporation and condensation.
3a. Most of Earth’s water is present as salt water in the oceans, which cover most of Earth’s surface.
3b. When liquid water evaporates, it turns into water vapor in the air and can reappear as a liquid when cooled or as a solid if cooled below the freezing point of water.
3c. Water vapor in the air moves from one place to another and can form fog or clouds, which are tiny droplets of water or ice, and can fall to Earth as rain, hail, sleet, or snow.
3d. The amount of fresh water located in rivers, lakes, under-ground sources, and glaciers is limited and that its availability can be extended by recycling and decreasing the use of water.
3e. Origin of the water used by their local communities.
4. Energy from the Sun heats Earth unevenly, causing air movements that result in changing weather patterns.
4a. Students know uneven heating of Earth causes air movements (convection currents).
4b. Students know the influence that the ocean has on the weather and the role that the water cycle plays in weather patterns.
4c. Students know the causes and effects of different types of severe weather.
4d. Students know how to use weather maps and data to predict local weather and know that weather forecasts depend on many variables.
4e. Earth’s atmosphere exerts a pressure that decreases with distance above Earth’s surface and it exerts this pressure equally in all directions.
5. The solar system consists of planets and other bodies that orbit the Sun in predictable paths.
5a. The Sun, an average star, is the central and largest body in the solar system and is composed primarily of hydrogen and helium.
5b. Solar system includes the planet Earth, the Moon, the Sun, eight (VETO!! There are seven)other planets and their satellites, and smaller objects (asteroids, comets).
5c. Path of a planet around the Sun is due to the gravitational attraction between the Sun and planet.
6. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.
6a. Classify objects (e.g., rocks, plants, leaves) in accordance with appropriate criteria.
6b. Develop a testable question.
6c. Plan and conduct an investigation based on a student-developed question and write instructions others can follow to carry out the procedure.
6d. Identify the dependent and controlled (VETO!!!)variables in an investigation.
6e. Identify an independent variable and explain how it can be used to collect information to answer a question about the results of the experiment.
6f. Select appropriate tools (e.g., thermometers, meter sticks, balances, and graduated cylinders) and make quantitative observations.
6g. Record data by using graphic representations (including charts, graphs, and labeled diagrams) and make inferences based on those data.
6h. Draw concl. from evidence and indicate whether further information is needed to support a concl.
6i. Write a report of an investigation (incl. experiment, data, conclusion).

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Social Studies)

  • Students describe what is known through archaeological studies of the early physical and cultural development of humankind from the Paleolithic era to the agricultural revolution.
  • Describe the hunter-gatherer societies, including the development of tools and the use of fire.
  • Identify the locations of human communities that populated the major regions of the world and describe how humans adapted to a variety of environments.
  • Discuss the climatic changes and human modifications of the physical environment that gave rise to the domestication of plants and animals and new sources of clothing and shelter.
  • Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Kush.
  • Locate and describe the major river systems and discuss the physical settings that supported permanent settlement and early civilizations.
  • Trace the development of agricultural techniques that permitted the production of economic surplus and the emergence of cities as centers of culture and power.
  • Understand the relationship between religion and the social and political order in Mesopotamia and Egypt.
  • Know the significance of Hammurabi’s Code.
  • Discuss the main features of Egyptian art and architecture.
  • Describe the role of Egyptian trade in the eastern Mediterranean and Nile valley.
  • Understand the significance of Queen Hatshepsut and Ramses the Great.
  • Identify the location of the Kush civilization and describe its political, commercial, and cultural relations with Egypt.
  • Trace the evolution of language and its written forms.
    Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Ancient Hebrews.
  • Describe the origins and significance of Judaism as the first monotheistic religion based on the concept of one God who sets down moral laws for humanity.
  • Identify the sources of the ethical teachings and central beliefs of Judaism (the Hebrew Bible, the Commentaries): belief in God, observance of law, practice of the concepts of righteousness and justice, and importance of study; and describe how the ideas of the Hebrew traditions are reflected in the moral and ethical traditions of Western civilization.
  • Explain the significance of Abraham, Moses, Naomi, Ruth, David, and Yohanan ben Zaccai in the development of the Jewish religion.
  • Discuss the locations of the settlements and movements of Hebrew peoples, including the
  • Exodus and their movement to and from Egypt, and outline the significance of the Exodus to the Jewish and other people.
  • Discuss how Judaism survived and developed despite the continuing dispersion of much of the Jewish population from Jerusalem and the rest of Israel after the destruction of the second Temple in A.D. 70.
  • Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Ancient Greece.
  • Discuss the connections between geography and the development of city-states in the region of the Aegean Sea, including patterns of trade and commerce among Greek city-states and within the wider Mediterranean region.
  • Trace the transition from tyranny and oligarchy to early democratic forms of government and back to dictatorship in ancient Greece, including the significance of the invention of the idea of citizenship (e.g., from Pericles’ Funeral Oration).
  • State the key differences between Athenian, or direct, democracy and representative democracy.
  • Explain the significance of Greek mythology to the everyday life of people in the region and how Greek literature continues to permeate our literature and language today, drawing from Greek mythology and epics, such as Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, and from Aesop’s Fables.
  • Outline the founding, expansion, and political organization of the Persian Empire.
    Compare and contrast life in Athens and Sparta, with emphasis on their roles in the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars.
  • Trace the rise of Alexander the Great and the spread of Greek culture eastward and into Egypt.
  • Describe the enduring contributions of important Greek figures in the arts and sciences (e.g., Hypatia, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, Thucydides).
  • Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of India.
  • Locate and describe the major river system and discuss the physical setting that supported the rise of this civilization.
  • Discuss the significance of the Aryan invasions.
  • Explain the major beliefs and practices of Brahmanism in India and how they evolved into early Hinduism.
  • Outline the social structure of the caste system.
  • Know the life and moral teachings of Buddha and how Buddhism spread in India, Ceylon, and Central Asia.
  • Describe the growth of the Maurya Empire and the political and moral achievements of the Emperor Asoka.
  • Discuss important aesthetic and intellectual traditions (e.g., Sanskrit literature, including the Bhagavad Gita; medicine; metallurgy; and mathematics, including Hindu-Arabic numerals andthe zero).
  • Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of China.
  • Locate and describe the origins of Chinese civilization in the Huang-He Valley during the Shang Dynasty
  • Explain the geographic features of China that made governance and the spread of ideas and goods difficult and served to isolate the country from the rest of the world.
  • Know about the life of Confucius and the fundamental teachings of Confucianism and Taoism.
  • Identify the political and cultural problems prevalent in the time of Confucius and how he sought to solve them.
  • List the policies and achievements of Emperor Shi Huangdi in unifying northern China under the Qin Dynasty.
  • Detail the political contributions of the Han Dynasty to the development of the imperial bureaucratic state and the expansion of the empire.
  • Cite the significance of the trans-Eurasian “silk roads” in the period of the Han Dynasty and Roman Empire and their locations.
  • Describe the diffusion of Buddhism northward to China during the Han Dynasty.
    Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures during the development of Rome.
  • Identify the location and describe the rise of the Roman Republic, including the importance of such mythical and historical figures as Aeneas, Romulus and Remus, Cincinnatus, and Cicero.
  • Describe the government of the Roman Republic and its significance (e.g., written constitution and tripartite government, checks and balances, civic duty).
  • Identify the location of and the political and geographic reasons for the growth of Roman territories and expansion of the empire, including how the empire fostered economic growth through the use of currency and trade routes.
  • Discuss the influence of Julius Caesar and Augustus in Rome’s transition from republic to empire.
  • Trace the migration of Jews around the Mediterranean region and the effects of their conflict with the Romans, including the Romans’ restrictions on their right to live in Jerusalem.
  • Note the origins of Christianity in the Jewish Messianic prophecies, the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament, and the contribution of St. Paul the Apostle to the definition and spread of Christian beliefs (e.g., belief in the Trinity, resurrection, salvation).
  • Describe the circumstances that led to the spread of Christianity in Europe and other Roman territories.
  • Discuss the legacies of Roman art and architecture, technology and science, literature, language, and law.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Science)

1. Plate tectonics accounts for important features of Earth’s surface and major geologic events.
1a. Evidence of plate tectonics is derived from the fit of the continents; the location of earthquakes, volcanoes, and midocean ridges; and the distribution of fossils, rock types, and ancient climatic zones.
1b. Students know Earth is composed of several layers: a cold, brittle lithosphere; a hot, convecting mantle; and a dense, metallic core.
1c. Students know lithospheric plates the size of continents and oceans move at rates of centimeters per year in response to movements in the mantle.
1d. Earthquakes are sudden motions along breaks in the crust called faults and volcanoes and fissures are locations where magma reaches the surface.
1e. Students know major geologic events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building, result from plate motions.
1f. Students know how to explain major features of California geology (including mountains, faults, volcanoes) in terms of plate tectonics.
1g. Determine the epicenter of an earthquake and know that the effects of an earthquake on any region vary, depending on the size of the earthquake, the distance of the region from the epicenter, the local geology, and the type of construction in the region.
2. Topography is reshaped by the weathering of rock and soil and by the transportation and deposition of sediment.
2a. Students know water running downhill is the dominant process in shaping the landscape, including California’s landscape.
2b. Students know rivers and streams are dynamic systems that erode, transport sediment, change course, and flood their banks in natural and recurring patterns.
2c. Students know beaches are dynamic systems in which the sand is supplied by rivers and moved along the coast by the action of waves.
2d. Students know earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and floods change human and wildlife habitats.
3. Heat moves in a predictable flow from warmer objects to cooler objects until all the objects are at the same temperature.
3a. Energy can be carried from one place to another by heat flow or by waves, including water, light and sound waves, or by moving objects.
3b. When fuel is consumed, most of the energy released becomes heat energy.
3c. Heat flows in solids by conduction and in fluids by conduction and by convection.
3d. Heat energy is also transferred between objects by radiation (radiation can travel through space).
4. Many phenomena on Earth’s surface are affected by the transfer of energy through radiation and convection currents.
4a. Students know the sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on Earth’s surface; it powers winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle.
4b. Students know solar energy reaches Earth through radiation, mostly in the form of visible light.
4c. Students know heat from Earth’s interior reaches the surface primarily through convection.
4d. Students know convection currents distribute heat in the atmosphere and oceans.
4e. Students know differences in pressure, heat, air movement, and humidity result in changes of weather.
5. Organisms in ecosystems exchange energy and nutrients among themselves and with the environment.
5a. Students know energy entering ecosystems as sunlight is transferred by producers into chemical energy through photosynthesis and then from organism to organism through food webs.
5b. Students know matter is transferred over time from one organism to others in the food web and between organisms and the physical environment.
5c. Students know populations of organisms can be categorized by the functions they serve in an ecosystem.
5d. Students know different kinds of organisms may play similar ecological roles in similar biomes.
5e. Students know the number and types of organisms an ecosystem can support depends on the resources available and on abiotic factors, such as quantities of light and water, a range of temperatures, and soil composition.
6. Sources of energy and materials differ in amounts, distribution, usefulness, and the time required for their formation.
6a. Students know the utility of energy sources is determined by factors that are involved in converting these sources to useful forms and the consequences of the conversion process.
6b. Students know different natural energy and material resources, including air, soil, rocks, minerals, petroleum, fresh water, wildlife, and forests, and know how to classify them as renewable or nonrenewable.
6c. Students know the natural origin of the materials used to make common objects.
7. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. Students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.
7a. Develop a hypothesis.
7b. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (including calculators, computers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, and binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.
7c. Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop qualitative statements about the relationships between variables.
7d. Communicate the steps and results from an investigation in written reports and oral presentations.
7e. Recognize whether evidence is consistent with a proposed explanation.
7f. Read a topographic map and a geologic map for evidence provided on the maps and construct and interpret a simple scale map.
7g. Interpret events by sequence and time from natural phenomena (e.g., relative ages of rocks).
7h. Identify changes in natural phenomena over time without manipulating the phenomena (e.g., a tree limb, a grove of trees, a stream, a hill slope).

Grade 7 (Grade 7 Social Studies)

  • Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire.
  • Study the early strengths and lasting contributions of Rome (e.g., significance of Roman citizenship; rights under Roman law; Roman art, architecture, engineering, and philosophy; preservation and transmission of Christianity) and its ultimate internal weaknesses (e.g., rise of autonomous military powers within the empire, undermining of citizenship by the growth of corruption and slavery, lack of education, and distribution of news).
  • Discuss the geographic borders of the empire at its height and the factors that threatened its territorial cohesion.
  • Describe the establishment by Constantine of the new capital in Constantinople and the development of the Byzantine Empire, with an emphasis on the consequences of the development of two distinct European civilizations, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic, and their two distinct views on church-state relations.
  • Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Islam in the Middle Ages.
  • Identify the physical features and describe the climate of the Arabian peninsula, its relationship to surrounding bodies of land and water, and nomadic and sedentary ways of life.
  • Trace the origins of Islam and the life and teachings of Muhammad, including Islamic teachings on the connection with Judaism and Christianity.
  • Explain the significance of the Qur’an and the Sunnah as the primary sources of Islamic beliefs, practice, and law, and their influence in Muslims’ daily life.
  • Discuss the expansion of Muslim rule through military conquests and treaties, emphasizing the cultural blending within Muslim civilization and the spread and acceptance of Islam and the Arabic language.
  • Describe the growth of cities and the establishment of trade routes among Asia, Africa, and Europe, the products and inventions that traveled along these routes (e.g., spices, textiles, paper, steel, new crops), and the role of merchants in Arab society.
  • Understand the intellectual exchanges among Muslim scholars of Eurasia and Africa and the contributions Muslim scholars made to later civilizations in the areas of science, geography, mathematics, philosophy, medicine, art, and literature.
  • Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of China in the Middle Ages.
  • Describe the reunification of China under the Tang Dynasty and reasons for the spread of Buddhism in Tang China, Korea, and Japan.
  • Describe agricultural, technological, and commercial developments during the Tang and Sung periods.
  • Analyze the influences of Confucianism and changes in Confucian thought during the Sung and Mongol periods.
  • Understand the importance of both overland trade and maritime expeditions between China and other civilizations in the Mongol Ascendancy and Ming Dynasty.
  • Trace the historic influence of such discoveries as tea, the manufacture of paper, wood-block printing, the compass, and gunpowder.
  • Describe the development of the imperial state and the scholar-official class.
    Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa.
  • Study the Niger River and the relationship of vegetation zones of forest, savannah, and desert to trade in gold, salt, food, and slaves; and the growth of the Ghana and Mali empires.
  • Analyze the importance of family, labor specialization, and regional commerce in the development of states and cities in West Africa.
  • Describe the role of the trans-Saharan caravan trade in the changing religious and cultural characteristics of West Africa and the influence of Islamic beliefs, ethics, and law.
    Trace the growth of the Arabic language in government, trade, and Islamic scholarship in West Africa.
  • Describe the importance of written and oral traditions in the transmission of African history and culture.
  • Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Japan.
  • Describe the significance of Japan’s proximity to China and Korea and the intellectual, linguistic, religious, and philosophical influence of those countries on Japan.
  • Discuss the reign of Prince Shotoku of Japan and the characteristics of Japanese society and family life during his reign.
  • Describe the values, social customs, and traditions prescribed by the lord-vassal system consisting of shogun, daimyo, and samurai and the lasting influence of the warrior code in the twentieth century.
  • Trace the development of distinctive forms of Japanese Buddhism.
  • Study the ninth and tenth centuries’ golden age of literature, art, and drama and its lasting effects on culture today, including Murasaki Shikibu’s Tale of Genji.
  • Analyze the rise of a military society in the late twelfth century and the role of the samurai in that society.
  • Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe.
  • Study the geography of the Europe and the Eurasian land mass, including its location, topography, waterways, vegetation, and climate and their relationship to ways of life in Medieval Europe.
  • Describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and the roles played by the early church and by monasteries in its diffusion after the fall of the western half of the Roman Empire.
  • Understand the development of feudalism, its role in the medieval European economy, the way in which it was influenced by physical geography (the role of the manor and the growth of towns), and how feudal relationships provided the foundation of political order.
    Demonstrate an understanding of the conflict and cooperation between the Papacy and European monarchs (e.g., Charlemagne, Gregory VII, Emperor Henry IV).
  • Know the significance of developments in medieval English legal and constitutional practices and their importance in the rise of modern democratic thought and representative institutions (e.g., Magna Carta, parliament, development of habeas corpus, an independent judiciary in England).
  • Discuss the causes and course of the religious Crusades and their effects on the Christian, Muslim, and Jewish populations in Europe, with emphasis on the increasing contact by Europeans with cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean world.
  • Map the spread of the bubonic plague from Central Asia to China, the Middle East, and Europe and describe its impact on global population.
  • Understand the importance of the Catholic Church as a political, intellectual, and aesthetic institution (e.g., founding of universities, political and spiritual roles of the clergy, creation of monastic and mendicant religious orders, preservation of the Latin language and religious texts, St. Thomas Aquinas’s synthesis of classical philosophy with Christian theology, and the concept of “natural law”).
  • Know the history of the decline of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula that culminated in the Reconquista and the rise of Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms.
  • Students compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Meso-American and Andean civilizations.
  • Study the locations, landforms, and climates of Mexico, Central America, and South
  • America and their effects on Mayan, Aztec, and Incan economies, trade, and development of urban societies.
  • Study the roles of people in each society, including class structures, family life, warfare, religious beliefs and practices, and slavery.
  • Explain how and where each empire arose and how the Aztec and Incan empires were defeated by the Spanish.
  • Describe the artistic and oral traditions and architecture in the three civilizations.
  • Describe the Meso-American achievements in astronomy and mathematics, including the development of the calendar and the Meso-American knowledge of seasonal changes to the civilizations’ agricultural systems.
  • Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and geographic diffusion of the Renaissance.
  • Describe the way in which the revival of classical learning and the arts fostered a new interest in humanism (i.e., a balance between intellect and religious faith).
  • Explain the importance of Florence in the early stages of the Renaissance and the growth of independent trading cities (e.g., Venice), with emphasis on the cities’ importance in the spread of Renaissance ideas.
  • Understand the effects of the reopening of the ancient “Silk Road” between Europe and China, including Marco Polo’s travels and the location of his routes.
  • Describe the growth and effects of new ways of disseminating information (e.g., the ability to manufacture paper, translation of the Bible into the vernacular, printing).
  • Detail advances made in literature, the arts, science, mathematics, cartography, engineering, and the understanding of human anatomy and astronomy (e.g., by Dante Alighieri, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo di Buonarroti Simoni, Johann Gutenberg, William Shakespeare).
  • Students analyze the historical developments of the Reformation.
  • List the causes for the internal turmoil in and weakening of the Catholic Church (e.g., tax policies, selling of indulgences).
  • Describe the theological, political, and economic ideas of the major figures during the Reformation (e.g., Desiderius Erasmus, Martin Luther, John Calvin, William Tyndale).
  • Explain Protestants’ new practices of church self-government and the influence of those practices on the development of democratic practices and ideas of federalism.
  • Identify and locate the European regions that remained Catholic and those that became Protestant and explain how the division affected the distribution of religions in the New World.
  • Analyze how the Counter-Reformation revitalized the Catholic Church and the forces that fostered the movement (e.g., St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits, the Council of Trent).
  • Understand the institution and impact of missionaries on Christianity and the diffusion of Christianity from Europe to other parts of the world in the medieval and early modern periods; locate missions on a world map.
  • Describe the Golden Age of cooperation between Jews and Muslims in medieval Spain that promoted creativity in art, literature, and science, including how that cooperation was terminated by the religious persecution of individuals and groups (e.g., the Spanish Inquisition and the expulsion of Jews and Muslims from Spain in 1492).
  • Students analyze the historical developments of the Scientific Revolution and its lasting effect on religious, political, and cultural institutions.
  • Discuss the roots of the Scientific Revolution (e.g., Greek rationalism; Jewish, Christian, and Muslim science; Renaissance humanism; new knowledge from global exploration).
    Understand the significance of the new scientific theories (e.g., those of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton) and the significance of new inventions (e.g., the telescope, microscope, thermometer, barometer).
  • Understand the scientific method advanced by Bacon and Descartes, the influence of new scientific rationalism on the growth of democratic ideas, and the coexistence of science with traditional religious beliefs.
  • Students analyze political and economic change in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries (the Age of Exploration, the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason).
    Know the great voyages of discovery, the locations of the routes, and the influence of cartography in the development of a new European worldview.
  • Discuss the exchanges of plants, animals, technology, culture, and ideas among Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and the major economic and social effects on each continent.
  • Examine the origins of modern capitalism; the influence of mercantilism and cottage industry; the elements and importance of a market economy in seventeenth-century Europe; the changing international trading and marketing patterns, including their locations on a world map; and the influence of explorers and map makers.
  • Explain how the main ideas of the Enlightenment can be traced back to such movements as the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Scientific Revolution and to the Greeks, Romans, and Christianity.
  • Describe how democratic thought and institutions were influenced by Enlightenment thinkers (e.g., John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, American founders).
  • Discuss how the principles in the Magna Carta were embodied in such documents as the English Bill of Rights and the American Declaration of Independence.

Grade 7 (Grade 7 Science)

1. All living organisms are composed of cells, from just one to many trillions, whose details usually are visible only through a microscope.
1a. Students know cells function similarly in all living organisms.
1b. Students know the characteristics that distinguish plant cells from animal cells, including chloroplasts and cell walls.
1c. Students know the nucleus is the repository for genetic information in plant and animal cells.
1d. Students know that mitochondria liberate energy for the work that cells do and that chloroplasts capture sunlight energy for photosynthesis.
1e. Students know cells divide to increase their numbers through a process of mitosis, which results in two daughter cells with identical sets of chromosomes.
1f. Students know that as multicellular organisms develop, their cells differentiate.
2. A typical cell of any organism contains genetic instructions that specify its traits. Those traits may be modified by environmental influences.
2a. Students know the differences between the life cycles and reproduction methods of sexual and asexual organisms.
2b. Students know sexual reproduction produces offspring that inherit half their genes from each parent.
2c. Students know an inherited trait can be determined by one or more genes.
2d. Students know plant and animal cells contain many thousands of different genes and typically have two copies of every gene. The two copies (or alleles) of the gene may or may not be identical, and one may be dominant in determining the phenotype while the other is recessive.
2e. Students know DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material of living organisms and is located in the chromosomes of each cell.
3. Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations.
3a. Students know both genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and diversity of organisms.
3b. Students know the reasoning used by Charles Darwin in reaching his conclusion that natural selection is the mechanism of evolution.
3c. Students know how independent lines of evidence from geology, fossils, and comparative anatomy provide the bases for the theory of evolution.
3d. Students know how to construct a simple branching diagram to classify living groups of organisms by shared derived characteristics and how to expand the diagram to include fossil organisms.
3e. Students know that extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the adaptive characteristics of a species are insufficient for its survival.
4. Evidence from rocks allows us to understand the evolution of life on Earth.
4a. Students know Earth processes today are similar to those that occurred in the past and slow geologic processes have large cumulative effects over long periods of time.
4b. Students know the history of life on Earth has been disrupted by major catastrophic events, such as major volcanic eruptions or the impacts of asteroids.
4c. Students know that the rock cycle includes the formation of new sediment and rocks and that rocks are often found in layers, with the oldest generally on the bottom.
4d. Students know that evidence from geologic layers and radioactive dating indicates Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old and that life on this planet has existed for more than 3 billion years.
4e. Students know fossils provide evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed.
4f. Students know how movements of Earth’s continental and oceanic plates through time, with associated changes in climate and geographic connections, have affected the past and present distribution of organisms.
5. The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and function.
5a. Students know plants and animals have levels of organization for structure and function, including cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and the whole organism.
5b. Students know organ systems function because of the contributions of individual organs, tissues, and cells. The failure of any part can affect the entire system.
5c. Students know how bones and muscles work together to provide a structural framework for movement.
5d. Students know how the reproductive organs of the human female and male generate eggs and sperm and how sexual activity may lead to fertilization and pregnancy.
5e. Students know the function of the umbilicus and placenta during pregnancy.
5f. Students know the structures and processes by which flowering plants generate pollen, ovules, seeds, and fruit.
5g. Students know how to relate the structures of the eye and ear to their functions.
6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions.
6a. Visible light is a small band within a very broad electromagnetic spectrum.
6b. For an object to be seen, light emitted by or scattered from it must be detected by the eye.
6c. Light travels in straight lines if the medium it travels through does not change.
6d. Simple lenses are used in a magnifying glass, the eye, a camera, a telescope, and a microscope.
6e. White light is a mixture of many wavelengths (colors) and retinal cells react differently to different wavelengths.
6f. Light can be reflected, refracted, transmitted, and absorbed by matter.
6g. Angle of reflection of a light beam is equal to the angle of incidence.
6h. Compare joints in the body (wrist, shoulder, thigh) with structures used in machines and simple devices (hinge, ball-and-socket, and sliding joints).
6i. Levers confer mechanical advantage; describe this principle to the musculoskeletal system.
6j. Contractions of the heart generate blood pressure and heart valves prevent back flow of blood in the circulatory system.
7. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. Students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.
7a. Select and use appropriate tools and technology (including calculators, computers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, and binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.
7b. Use a variety of print and electronic resources (including the World Wide Web) to collect information and evidence as part of a research project.
7c. Communicate the logical connection among hypotheses, science concepts, tests conducted, data collected, and conclusions drawn from the scientific evidence.
7d. Construct scale models, maps, and appropriately labeled diagrams to communicate scientific knowledge (e.g., motion of Earth’s plates and cell structure).
7e. Communicate the steps and results from an investigation in written reports and oral presentations.

Grade 8 (Grade 8 Social Studies)

  • Students understand the major events preceding the founding of the nation and relate their significance to the development of American constitutional democracy.
  • Describe the relationship between the moral and political ideas of the Great Awakening and the development of revolutionary fervor.
  • Analyze the philosophy of government expressed in the Declaration of Independence, with an emphasis on government as a means of securing individual rights (e.g., key phrases such as “all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights”).
  • Analyze how the American Revolution affected other nations, especially France.
  • Describe the nation’s blend of civic republicanism, classical liberal principles, and English parliamentary traditions.
  • Students analyze the political principles underlying the U.S. Constitution and compare the enumerated and implied powers of the federal government.
  • Discuss the significance of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and the May-flower Compact.
  • Analyze the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution and the success of each in implementing the ideals of the Declaration of Independence.
  • Evaluate the major debates that occurred during the development of the Constitution and their ultimate resolutions in such areas as shared power among institutions, divided state-federal power, slavery, the rights of individuals and states (later addressed by the addition of the Bill of Rights), and the status of American Indian nations under the commerce clause.
  • Describe the political philosophy underpinning the Constitution as specified in the
  • Federalist Papers (authored by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay) and the role of such leaders as Madison, George Washington, Roger Sherman, Gouverneur Morris, and James Wilson in the writing and ratification of the Constitution.
  • Understand the significance of Jefferson’s Statute for Religious Freedom as a forerunner of the First Amendment and the origins, purpose, and differing views of the founding fathers on the issue of the separation of church and state.
  • Enumerate the powers of government set forth in the Constitution and the fundamental liberties ensured by the Bill of Rights.
  • Describe the principles of federalism, dual sovereignty, separation of powers, checks and balances, the nature and purpose of majority rule, and the ways in which the American idea of constitutionalism preserves individual rights.
  • Students understand the foundation of the American political system and the ways in which citizens participate in it.
  • Analyze the principles and concepts codified in state constitutions between 1777 and 1781 that created the context out of which American political institutions and ideas developed.
    Explain how the ordinances of 1785 and 1787 privatized national resources and transferred federally owned lands into private holdings, townships, and states.
  • Enumerate the advantages of a common market among the states as foreseen in and protected by the Constitution’s clauses on interstate commerce, common coinage, and full-faith and credit.
  • Understand how the conflicts between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton resulted in the emergence of two political parties (e.g., view of foreign policy, Alien and Sedition Acts, economic policy, National Bank, funding and assumption of the revolutionary debt).
  • Know the significance of domestic resistance movements and ways in which the central government responded to such movements (e.g., Shays’ Rebellion, the Whiskey Rebel-lion).
  • Describe the basic law-making process and how the Constitution provides numerous opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process and to monitor and influence government (e.g., function of elections, political parties, interest groups).
  • Understand the functions and responsibilities of a free press.
  • Students analyze the aspirations and ideals of the people of the new nation.
  • Describe the country’s physical landscapes, political divisions, and territorial expansion during the terms of the first four presidents.
  • Explain the policy significance of famous speeches (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address, Jefferson’s 1801 Inaugural Address, John Q. Adams’s Fourth of July 1821 Address).
  • Analyze the rise of capitalism and the economic problems and conflicts that accompanied it (e.g., Jackson’s opposition to the National Bank; early decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court that reinforced the sanctity of contracts and a capitalist economic system of law).
    Discuss daily life, including traditions in art, music, and literature, of early national America (e.g., through writings by Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper).
  • Students analyze U.S. foreign policy in the early Republic.
  • Understand the political and economic causes and consequences of the War of 1812 and know the major battles, leaders, and events that led to a final peace.
    Know the changing boundaries of the United States and describe the relationships the country had with its neighbors (current Mexico and Canada) and Europe, including the influence of the Monroe Doctrine, and how those relationships influenced westward expansion and the Mexican-American War.
  • Outline the major treaties with American Indian nations during the administrations of the first four presidents and the varying outcomes of those treaties.
  • Students analyze the divergent paths of the American people from 1800 to the mid-1800s and the challenges they faced, with emphasis on the Northeast.
  • Discuss the influence of industrialization and technological developments on the region, including human modification of the landscape and how physical geography shaped human actions (e.g., growth of cities, deforestation, farming, mineral extraction).
    Outline the physical obstacles to and the economic and political factors involved in building a network of roads, canals, and railroads (e.g., Henry Clay’s American System).
    List the reasons for the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to the United States and describe the growth in the number, size, and spatial arrangements of cities (e.g., Irish immigrants and the Great Irish Famine).
  • Study the lives of black Americans who gained freedom in the North and founded schools and churches to advance their rights and communities.
  • Trace the development of the American education system from its earliest roots, including the roles of religious and private schools and Horace Mann’s campaign for free public education and its assimilating role in American culture.
  • Examine the women’s suffrage movement (e.g., biographies, writings, and speeches of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Margaret Fuller, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony).
  • Identify common themes in American art as well as transcendentalism and individualism (e.g., writings about and by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Herman Melville, Louisa May Alcott, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow).
  • Students analyze the divergent paths of the American people in the South from 1800 to the mid-1800s and the challenges they faced.
  • Describe the development of the agrarian economy in the South, identify the locations of the cotton-producing states, and discuss the significance of cotton and the cotton gin.
    Trace the origins and development of slavery; its effects on black Americans and on the region’s political, social, religious, economic, and cultural development; and identify the strategies that were tried to both overturn and preserve it (e.g., through the writings and historical documents on Nat Turner, Denmark Vesey).
  • Examine the characteristics of white Southern society and how the physical environment influenced events and conditions prior to the Civil War.
    Compare the lives of and opportunities for free blacks in the North with those of free blacks in the South.
  • Students analyze the divergent paths of the American people in the West from 1800 to the mid-1800s and the challenges they faced.
  • Discuss the election of Andrew Jackson as president in 1828, the importance of Jacksonian democracy, and his actions as president (e.g., the spoils system, veto of the National Bank, policy of Indian removal, opposition to the Supreme Court).
    Describe the purpose, challenges, and economic incentives associated with westward expansion, including the concept of Manifest Destiny (e.g., the Lewis and Clark expedition, accounts of the removal of Indians, the Cherokees’ “Trail of Tears,” settlement of the Great Plains) and the territorial acquisitions that spanned numerous decades.
    Describe the role of pioneer women and the new status that western women achieved (e.g., Laura Ingalls Wilder, Annie Bidwell; slave women gaining freedom in the West; Wyoming granting suffrage to women in 1869).
  • Examine the importance of the great rivers and the struggle over water rights.
  • Discuss Mexican settlements and their locations, cultural traditions, attitudes toward slavery, land-grant system, and economies.
  • Describe the Texas War for Independence and the Mexican-American War, including territorial settlements, the aftermath of the wars, and the effects the wars had on the lives of Americans, including Mexican Americans today.
  • Students analyze the early and steady attempts to abolish slavery and to realize the ideals of the Declaration of Independence.
  • Describe the leaders of the movement (e.g., John Quincy Adams and his proposed constitutional amendment, John Brown and the armed resistance, Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad, Benjamin Franklin, Theodore Weld, William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass).
  • Discuss the abolition of slavery in early state constitutions.
  • Describe the significance of the Northwest Ordinance in education and in the banning of slavery in new states north of the Ohio River.
  • Discuss the importance of the slavery issue as raised by the annexation of Texas and
  • California’s admission to the union as a free state under the Compromise of 1850.
  • Analyze the significance of the States’ Rights Doctrine, the Missouri Compromise (1820), the Wilmot Proviso (1846), the Compromise of 1850, Henry Clay’s role in the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854), the Dred Scott v. Sandford decision (1857), and the Lincoln-Douglas debates (1858).
  • Describe the lives of free blacks and the laws that limited their freedom and economic opportunities.
  • Students analyze the multiple causes, key events, and complex consequences of the Civil War.
  • Compare the conflicting interpretations of state and federal authority as emphasized in the speeches and writings of statesmen such as Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun.
  • Trace the boundaries constituting the North and the South, the geographical differences between the two regions, and the differences between agrarians and industrialists.
  • Identify the constitutional issues posed by the doctrine of nullification and secession and the earliest origins of that doctrine.
  • Discuss Abraham Lincoln’s presidency and his significant writings and speeches and their relationship to the Declaration of Independence, such as his “House Divided” speech (1858), Gettysburg Address (1863), Emancipation Proclamation (1863), and inaugural addresses (1861 and 1865).
  • Study the views and lives of leaders (e.g., Ulysses S. Grant, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee) and soldiers on both sides of the war, including those of black soldiers and regiments.
    Describe critical developments and events in the war, including the major battles, geographical advantages and obstacles, technological advances, and General Lee’s surrender at Appomattox.
  • Explain how the war affected combatants, civilians, the physical environment, and future warfare.
  • Students analyze the character and lasting consequences of Reconstruction.
  • List the original aims of Reconstruction and describe its effects on the political and social structures of different regions.
  • Identify the push-pull factors in the movement of former slaves to the cities in the North and to the West and their differing experiences in those regions (e.g., the experiences of Buffalo Soldiers).
  • Understand the effects of the Freedmen’s Bureau and the restrictions placed on the rights and opportunities of freedmen, including racial segregation and “Jim Crow” laws.
  • Trace the rise of the Ku Klux Klan and describe the Klan’s effects.
  • Understand the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution and analyze their connection to Reconstruction.
  • Students analyze the transformation of the American economy and the changing social and political conditions in the United States in response to the Indus-trial Revolution.
    Trace patterns of agricultural and industrial development as they relate to climate, use of natural resources, markets, and trade and locate such development on a map.
  • Identify the reasons for the development of federal Indian policy and the wars with
  • American Indians and their relationship to agricultural development and industrialization.
  • Explain how states and the federal government encouraged business expansion through tariffs, banking, land grants, and subsidies.
  • Discuss entrepreneurs, industrialists, and bankers in politics, commerce, and industry (e.g., Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Leland Stanford).
  • Examine the location and effects of urbanization, renewed immigration, and industrialization (e.g., the effects on social fabric of cities, wealth and economic opportunity, the conservation movement).
  • Discuss child labor, working conditions, and laissez-faire policies toward big business and examine the labor movement, including its leaders (e.g., Samuel Gompers), its demand for collective bargaining, and its strikes and protests over labor conditions.
  • Identify the new sources of large-scale immigration and the contributions of immigrants to the building of cities and the economy; explain the ways in which new social and economic patterns encouraged assimilation of newcomers into the mainstream amidst growing cultural diversity; and discuss the new wave of nativism.
  • Identify the characteristics and impact of Grangerism and Populism.
  • Name the significant inventors and their inventions and identify how they improved the quality of life (e.g., Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, Orville and Wilbur Wright).

Grade 8 (Grade 8 Science)

1. The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position.
1a. Position is defined in relation to some choice of a standard reference point and a set of reference directions.
1b. Average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed; speed of an object along the path traveled can vary.
1c. Solve problems involving distance, time, and average speed.
1d. Velocity of an object must be described by specifying both direction and speed of the object.
1e. Changes in velocity may be due to changes in speed, direction, or both.
1f. Interpret graphs of position vs time and graphs of speed vs time for motion in a single direction.
2. Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity.
2a. Students know a force has both direction and magnitude.
2b. Students know when an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the result is the cumulative effect of all the forces.
2c. Students know when the forces on an object are balanced, the motion of the object does not change.
2d. Students know how to identify separately the two or more forces that are acting on a single static object, including gravity, elastic forces due to tension or compression in matter, and friction.
2e. Students know that when the forces on an object are unbalanced, the object will change its velocity (that is, it will speed up, slow down, or change direction).
2f. Students know the greater the mass of an object, the more force is needed to achieve the same rate of change in motion.
2g. Students know the role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars, and the solar system.
3. Each of the more than 100 elements of matter has distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of matter are composed of one or more of the elements.
3a. Students know the structure of the atom and know it is composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
3b. Students know that compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements and that compounds have properties that are different from their constituent elements.
3c. Students know atoms and molecules form solids by building up repeating patterns, such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long-chain polymers.
3d. Students know the states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) depend on molecular motion.
3e. Students know that in solids the atoms are closely locked in position and can only vibrate; in liquids the atoms and molecules are more loosely connected and can collide with and move past one another; and in gases the atoms and molecules are free to move independently, colliding frequently.
3f. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify elements in simple compounds.
4. The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars and galaxies and their evolution.
4a. Students know galaxies are clusters of billions of stars and may have different shapes.
4b. Students know that the Sun is one of many stars in the Milky Way galaxy and that stars may differ in size, temperature, and color.
4c. Students know how to use astronomical units and light years as measures of distances between the Sun, stars, and Earth.
4d. Students know that stars are the source of light for all bright objects in outer space and that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight, not by their own light.
4e. Students know the appearance, general composition, relative position and size, and motion of objects in the solar system, including planets, planetary satellites, comets, and asteroids.
5. Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of molecules.
5a. Students know reactant atoms and molecules interact to form products with different chemical properties.
5b. Students know the idea of atoms explains the conservation of matter: In chemical reactions the number of atoms stays the same no matter how they are arranged, so their total mass stays the same.
5c. Students know chemical reactions usually liberate heat or absorb heat.
5d. Students know physical processes include freezing and boiling, in which a material changes form with no chemical reaction.
5e. Students know how to determine whether a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral.
6. Principles of chemistry underlie the functioning of biological systems.
6a. Students know that carbon, because of its ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements, has a central role in the chemistry of living organisms.
6b. Students know that living organisms are made of molecules consisting largely of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
6c. Students know that living organisms have many different kinds of molecules, including small ones, such as water and salt, and very large ones, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and DNA.
7. The organization of the periodic table is based on the properties of the elements and reflects the structure of atoms.
7a. Students know how to identify regions corresponding to metals, nonmetals, and inert gases.
7b. Students know each element has a specific number of protons in the nucleus (the atomic number) and each isotope of the element has a different but specific number of neutrons in the nucleus.
7c. Students know substances can be classified by their properties, including their melting temperature, density, hardness, and thermal and electrical conductivity.
8. All objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid.
8a. Students know density is mass per unit volume.
8b. Students know how to calculate the density of substances (regular and irregular solids and liquids) from measurements of mass and volume.
8c. Students know the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid the object has displaced.
8d. Students know how to predict whether an object will float or sink.
9. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. Students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.
9a. Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.
9b. Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data.
9c. Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.
9d. Recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationship y=kx and apply this principle in interpreting graphs constructed from data.
9e. Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationships between variables.
9f. Apply simple mathematic relationships to determine a missing quantity in a mathematic expression (speed = d/t, density = mass/volume, force = pressure × area, volume = area × height).
9g. Distinguish between linear and nonlinear relationships on a graph of data.

Grade 10 (Grade 10 Social Studies)

  • 10.1 Students relate the moral and ethical principles in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, in Judaism, and in Christianity to the development of Western political thought.
  • Analyze the similarities and differences in Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman views of law, reason and faith, and duties of the individual.
  • Trace the development of the Western political ideas of the rule of law and illegitimacy of tyranny, using selections from Plato’s Republic and Aristotle’s Politics.
  • Consider the influence of the U.S. Constitution on political systems in the contemporary world.
  • 10.2 Students compare and contrast the Glorious Revolution of England, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution and their enduring effects worldwide on the political expectations for self-government and individual liberty.
  • Compare the major ideas of philosophers and their effects on the democratic revolutions in England, the United States, France, and Latin America (e.g., John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Simón Bolívar, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison).
  • List the principles of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights (1689), the American
  • Declaration of Independence (1776), the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789), and the U.S. Bill of Rights (1791).
    Understand the unique character of the American Revolution, its spread to other parts of the world, and its continuing significance to other nations.
  • Explain how the ideology of the French Revolution led France to develop from constitutional monarchy to democratic despotism to the Napoleonic empire.
  • Discuss how nationalism spread across Europe with Napoleon but was repressed for a generation under the Congress of Vienna and Concert of Europe until the Revolutions of 1848.
  • 10.3 Students analyze the effects of the Industrial Revolution in England, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States.
  • Analyze why England was the first country to industrialize.
  • Examine how scientific and technological changes and new forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change (e.g., the inventions and discoveries of James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis Pasteur, Thomas Edison).
  • Describe the growth of population, rural to urban migration, and growth of cities associated with the Industrial Revolution.
  • Trace the evolution of work and labor, including the demise of the slave trade and the effects of immigration, mining and manufacturing, division of labor, and the union movement.
  • Understand the connections among natural resources, entrepreneurship, labor, and capital in an industrial economy.
  • Analyze the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern and the responses to it, including Utopianism, Social Democracy, Socialism, and Communism.
  • Describe the emergence of Romanticism in art and literature (e.g., the poetry of William Blake and William Wordsworth), social criticism (e.g., the novels of Charles Dickens), and the move away from Classicism in Europe.
  • 10.4 Students analyze patterns of global change in the era of New Imperialism in at least two of the following regions or countries: Africa, Southeast Asia, China, India, Latin America, and the Philippines.
  • Describe the rise of industrial economies and their link to imperialism and colonial-ism (e.g., the role played by national security and strategic advantage; moral issues raised by the search for national hegemony, Social Darwinism, and the missionary impulse; material issues such as land, resources, and technology).
  • Discuss the locations of the colonial rule of such nations as England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Portugal, and the United States.
  • Explain imperialism from the perspective of the colonizers and the colonized and the varied immediate and long-term responses by the people under colonial rule.
  • Describe the independence struggles of the colonized regions of the world, including the roles of leaders, such as Sun Yat-sen in China, and the roles of ideology and religion.
    10.5 Students analyze the causes and course of the First World War.
  • Analyze the arguments for entering into war presented by leaders from all sides of the Great War and the role of political and economic rivalries, ethnic and ideological conflicts, domestic discontent and disorder, and propaganda and nationalism in mobilizing the civilian population in support of “total war.”
  • Examine the principal theaters of battle, major turning points, and the importance of geographic factors in military decisions and outcomes (e.g., topography, waterways, distance, climate).
  • Explain how the Russian Revolution and the entry of the United States affected the course and outcome of the war.
  • Understand the nature of the war and its human costs (military and civilian) on all sides of the conflict, including how colonial peoples contributed to the war effort.
  • Discuss human rights violations and genocide, including the Ottoman government’s actions against Armenian citizens.
  • 10.6 Students analyze the effects of the First World War.
  • Analyze the aims and negotiating roles of world leaders, the terms and influence of the Treaty of Versailles and Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points, and the causes and effects of the United States’s rejection of the League of Nations on world politics.
  • Describe the effects of the war and resulting peace treaties on population movement, the international economy, and shifts in the geographic and political borders of Europe and the Middle East.
  • Understand the widespread disillusionment with prewar institutions, authorities, and values that resulted in a void that was later filled by totalitarians.
  • Discuss the influence of World War I on literature, art, and intellectual life in the West (e.g., Pablo Picasso, the “lost generation” of Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway).
  • 10.7 Students analyze the rise of totalitarian governments after World War I.
  • Understand the causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution, including Lenin’s use of totalitarian means to seize and maintain control (e.g., the Gulag).
  • Trace Stalin’s rise to power in the Soviet Union and the connection between economic policies, political policies, the absence of a free press, and systematic violations of human rights (e.g., the Terror Famine in Ukraine).
  • Analyze the rise, aggression, and human costs of totalitarian regimes (Fascist and Communist) in Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union, noting especially their common and dissimilar traits.
  • 10.8 Students analyze the causes and consequences of World War II.
  • Compare the German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s, including the 1937 Rape of Nanking, other atrocities in China, and the Stalin-Hitler Pact of 1939.
  • Understand the role of appeasement, nonintervention (isolationism), and the domestic distractions in Europe and the United States prior to the outbreak of World War II.
  • Identify and locate the Allied and Axis powers on a map and discuss the major turning points of the war, the principal theaters of conflict, key strategic decisions, and the resulting war conferences and political resolutions, with emphasis on the importance of geographic factors.
  • Describe the political, diplomatic, and military leaders during the war (e.g., Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Emperor Hirohito, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin, Douglas MacArthur, Dwight Eisenhower).
  • Analyze the Nazi policy of pursuing racial purity, especially against the European Jews; its transformation into the Final Solution; and the Holocaust that resulted in the murder of six million Jewish civilians.
  • Discuss the human costs of the war, with particular attention to the civilian and military losses in Russia, Germany, Britain, the United States, China, and Japan.
  • 10.9 Students analyze the international developments in the post-World World War II world.
  • Compare the economic and military power shifts caused by the war, including the Yalta Pact, the development of nuclear weapons, Soviet control over Eastern European nations, and the economic recoveries of Germany and Japan.
  • Analyze the causes of the Cold War, with the free world on one side and Soviet client states on the other, including competition for influence in such places as Egypt, the Congo, Vietnam, and Chile.
  • Understand the importance of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, which established the pattern for America’s postwar policy of supplying economic and military aid to prevent the spread of Communism and the resulting economic and political competition in arenas such as Southeast Asia (i.e., the Korean War, Vietnam War), Cuba, and Africa.
  • Analyze the Chinese Civil War, the rise of Mao Tse-tung, and the subsequent political and economic upheavals in China (e.g., the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and the Tiananmen Square uprising).
  • Describe the uprisings in Poland (1952), Hungary (1956), and Czechoslovakia (1968) and those countries’ resurgence in the 1970s and 1980s as people in Soviet satellites sought freedom from Soviet control.
  • Understand how the forces of nationalism developed in the Middle East, how the Holocaust affected world opinion regarding the need for a Jewish state, and the significance and effects of the location and establishment of Israel on world affairs.
    Analyze the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union, including the weakness of the command economy, burdens of military commitments, and growing resistance to Soviet rule by dissidents in satellite states and the non-Russian Soviet republics.
  • Discuss the establishment and work of the United Nations and the purposes and functions of the Warsaw Pact, SEATO, NATO, and the Organization of American States.
  • 10.10 Students analyze instances of nation-building in the contemporary world in at least two of the following regions or countries: the Middle East, Africa, Mexico and other parts of Latin America, and China.
  • Understand the challenges in the regions, including their geopolitical, cultural, military, and economic significance and the international relationships in which they are involved.
  • Describe the recent history of the regions, including political divisions and systems, key leaders, religious issues, natural features, resources, and population patterns.
  • Discuss the important trends in the regions today and whether they appear to serve the cause of individual freedom and democracy.
  • 10.11 Students analyze the integration of countries into the world economy and the information, technological, and communications revolutions (e.g., television, satellites, computers).

Grade 11 (Grade 11 Social Studies)

  • 11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation and its attempts to realize the philosophy of government described in the Declaration of Independence.
  • Describe the Enlightenment and the rise of democratic ideas as the context in which the nation was founded.
  • Analyze the ideological origins of the American Revolution, the Founding Fathers’ philosophy of divinely bestowed unalienable natural rights, the debates on the drafting and ratification of the Constitution, and the addition of the Bill of Rights.
  • Understand the history of the Constitution after 1787 with emphasis on federal versus state authority and growing democratization.
  • Examine the effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction and of the industrial revolution, including demographic shifts and the emergence in the late nineteenth century of the United States as a world power.
  • 11.2 Students analyze the relationship among the rise of industrialization, large-scale rural-to-urban migration, and massive immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe.
    Know the effects of industrialization on living and working conditions, including the portrayal of working conditions and food safety in Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle.
  • Describe the changing landscape, including the growth of cities linked by industry and trade, and the development of cities divided according to race, ethnicity, and class.
  • Trace the effect of the Americanization movement.
  • Analyze the effect of urban political machines and responses to them by immigrants and middle-class reformers.
  • Discuss corporate mergers that produced trusts and cartels and the economic and political policies of industrial leaders.
  • Trace the economic development of the United States and its emergence as a major industrial power, including its gains from trade and the advantages of its physical geography.
  • Analyze the similarities and differences between the ideologies of Social Darwinism and Social Gospel (e.g., using biographies of William Graham Sumner, Billy Sunday, Dwight L. Moody).
  • Examine the effect of political programs and activities of Populists.
  • Understand the effect of political programs and activities of the Progressives (e.g., federal regulation of railroad transport, Children’s Bureau, the Sixteenth Amendment, Theodore Roosevelt, Hiram Johnson).
  • 11.3 Students analyze the role religion played in the founding of America, its lasting moral, social, and political impacts, and issues regarding religious liberty.
  • Describe the contributions of various religious groups to American civic principles and social reform movements (e.g., civil and human rights, individual responsibility and the work ethic, antimonarchy and self-rule, worker protection, family-centered communities).
  • Analyze the great religious revivals and the leaders involved in them, including the First Great Awakening, the Second Great Awakening, the Civil War revivals, the Social Gospel Movement, the rise of Christian liberal theology in the nineteenth century, the impact of the Second Vatican Council, and the rise of Christian fundamentalism in current times.
    Cite incidences of religious intolerance in the United States (e.g., persecution of Mormons, anti-Catholic sentiment, anti-Semitism).
  • Discuss the expanding religious pluralism in the United States and California that resulted from large-scale immigration in the twentieth century.
  • Describe the principles of religious liberty found in the Establishment and Free Exercise clauses of the First Amendment, including the debate on the issue of separation of church and state.
  • 11.4 Students trace the rise of the United States to its role as a world power in the twentieth century.
  • List the purpose and the effects of the Open Door policy.
  • Describe the Spanish-American War and U.S. expansion in the South Pacific.
  • Discuss America’s role in the Panama Revolution and the building of the Panama Canal.
  • Explain Theodore Roosevelt’s Big Stick diplomacy, William Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy, drawing on relevant speeches.
  • Analyze the political, economic, and social ramifications of World War I on the home front.
  • Trace the declining role of Great Britain and the expanding role of the United States in world affairs after World War II.
  • 11.5 Students analyze the major political, social, economic, technological, and cultural developments of the 1920s.
  • Discuss the policies of Presidents Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover.
  • Analyze the international and domestic events, interests, and philosophies that prompted attacks on civil liberties, including the Palmer Raids, Marcus Garvey’s “back-to-Africa” movement, the Ku Klux Klan, and immigration quotas and the responses of organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Anti-Defamation League to those attacks.
  • Examine the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution and the Volstead Act (Prohibition).
  • Analyze the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment and the changing role of women in society.
  • Describe the Harlem Renaissance and new trends in literature, music, and art, with special attention to the work of writers (e.g., Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes).
  • Trace the growth and effects of radio and movies and their role in the worldwide diffusion of popular culture.
  • Discuss the rise of mass production techniques, the growth of cities, the impact of new technologies (e.g., the automobile, electricity), and the resulting prosperity and effect on the American landscape.
  • 11.6 Students analyze the different explanations for the Great Depression and how the New Deal fundamentally changed the role of the federal government.
  • Describe the monetary issues of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that gave rise to the establishment of the Federal Reserve and the weaknesses in key sectors of the economy in the late 1920s.
  • Understand the explanations of the principal causes of the Great Depression and the steps taken by the Federal Reserve, Congress, and Presidents Herbert Hoover and Franklin Delano Roosevelt to combat the economic crisis.
  • Discuss the human toll of the Depression, natural disasters, and unwise agricultural practices and their effects on the depopulation of rural regions and on political movements of the left and right, with particular attention to the Dust Bowl refugees and their social and economic impacts in California.
  • Analyze the effects of and the controversies arising from New Deal economic policies and the expanded role of the federal government in society and the economy since the 1930s (e.g., Works Progress Administration, Social Security, National Labor Relations Board, farm programs, regional development policies, and energy development projects such as the Tennessee Valley Authority, California Central Valley Project, and Bonneville Dam).
    Trace the advances and retreats of organized labor, from the creation of the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations to current issues of a postindustrial, multinational economy, including the United Farm Workers in California.
  • 11.7 Students analyze America’s participation in World War II.
  • Examine the origins of American involvement in the war, with an emphasis on the events that precipitated the attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • Explain U.S. and Allied wartime strategy, including the major battles of Midway, Normandy, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, and the Battle of the Bulge.
  • Identify the roles and sacrifices of individual American soldiers, as well as the unique contributions of the special fighting forces (e.g., the Tuskegee Airmen, the 442nd Regimental Combat team, the Navajo Code Talkers).
  • Analyze Roosevelt’s foreign policy during World War II (e.g., Four Freedoms speech).
  • Discuss the constitutional issues and impact of events on the U.S. home front, including the internment of Japanese Americans (e.g., Fred Korematsu v. United States of America) and the restrictions on German and Italian resident aliens; the response of the administration to Hitler’s atrocities against Jews and other groups; the roles of women in military production; and the roles and growing political demands of African Americans.
  • Describe major developments in aviation, weaponry, communication, and medicine and the war’s impact on the location of American industry and use of resources.
  • Discuss the decision to drop atomic bombs and the consequences of the decision (Hiroshima and Nagasaki).
  • Analyze the effect of massive aid given to Western Europe under the Marshall Plan to rebuild itself after the war and the importance of a rebuilt Europe to the U.S. economy.
    11.8 Students analyze the economic boom and social transformation of post-World War II America.
  • Trace the growth of service sector, white collar, and professional sector jobs in business and government.
  • Describe the significance of Mexican immigration and its relationship to the agricultural economy, especially in California.
  • Examine Truman’s labor policy and congressional reaction to it.
  • Analyze new federal government spending on defense, welfare, interest on the national debt, and federal and state spending on education, including the California Master Plan.
  • Describe the increased powers of the presidency in response to the Great Depression, World War II, and the Cold War.
  • Discuss the diverse environmental regions of North America, their relationship to local economies, and the origins and prospects of environmental problems in those regions.
  • Describe the effects on society and the economy of technological developments since 1945, including the computer revolution, changes in communication, advances in medicine, and improvements in agricultural technology.
  • Discuss forms of popular culture, with emphasis on their origins and geographic diffusion (e.g., jazz and other forms of popular music, professional sports, architectural and artistic styles).
  • 11.9 Students analyze U.S. foreign policy since World War II.
  • Discuss the establishment of the United Nations and International Declaration of Human Rights, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and their importance in shaping modern Europe and maintaining peace and international order.
  • Understand the role of military alliances, including NATO and SEATO, in deterring communist aggression and maintaining security during the Cold War.
  • Trace the origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of the Cold War and containment policy, including the following:
  • The era of McCarthyism, instances of domestic Communism (e.g., Alger Hiss) and blacklisting
    The Truman Doctrine
    The Berlin Blockade
    The Korean War
    The Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis
    Atomic testing in the American West, the “mutual assured destruction” doctrine, and disarmament policies
    The Vietnam War
    Latin American policy
  • List the effects of foreign policy on domestic policies and vice versa (e.g., protests during the war in Vietnam, the “nuclear freeze” movement).
  • Analyze the role of the Reagan administration and other factors in the victory of the West in the Cold War.
  • Describe U.S. Middle East policy and its strategic, political, and economic interests, including those related to the Gulf War.
  • Examine relations between the United States and Mexico in the twentieth century, including key economic, political, immigration, and environmental issues.
  • 11.10 Students analyze the development of federal civil rights and voting rights.
  • Explain how demands of African Americans helped produce a stimulus for civil rights, including President Roosevelt’s ban on racial discrimination in defense industries in 1941, and how African Americans’ service in World War II produced a stimulus for President
  • Truman’s decision to end segregation in the armed forces in 1948.
  • Examine and analyze the key events, policies, and court cases in the evolution of civil rights, including Dred Scott v. Sandford, Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education,
  • Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, and California Proposition 209.
  • Describe the collaboration on legal strategy between African American and white civil rights lawyers to end racial segregation in higher education.
  • Examine the roles of civil rights advocates (e.g., A. Philip Randolph, Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, Thurgood Marshall, James Farmer, Rosa Parks), including the significance of Martin Luther King, Jr. ‘s “Letter from Birmingham Jail” and “I Have a Dream” speech.
  • Discuss the diffusion of the civil rights movement of African Americans from the churches of the rural South and the urban North, including the resistance to racial desegregation in Little Rock and Birmingham, and how the advances influenced the agendas, strategies, and effectiveness of the quests of American Indians, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans for civil rights and equal opportunities.
  • Analyze the passage and effects of civil rights and voting rights legislation (e.g., 1964 Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act of 1965) and the Twenty-Fourth Amendment, with an emphasis on equality of access to education and to the political process.
  • Analyze the women’s rights movement from the era of Elizabeth Stanton and Susan Anthony and the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the movement launched in the 1960s, including differing perspectives on the roles of women.
  • 11.11 Students analyze the major social problems and domestic policy issues in contemporary American society.
  • Discuss the reasons for the nation’s changing immigration policy, with emphasis on how the Immigration Act of 1965 and successor acts have transformed American society.
  • Discuss the significant domestic policy speeches of Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton (e.g., with regard to education, civil rights, economic policy, environmental policy).
  • Describe the changing roles of women in society as reflected in the entry of more women into the labor force and the changing family structure.
  • Explain the constitutional crisis originating from the Watergate scandal.
  • Trace the impact of, need for, and controversies associated with environmental conservation, expansion of the national park system, and the development of environmental protection laws, with particular attention to the interaction between environmental protection advocates and property rights advocates.
  • Analyze the persistence of poverty and how different analyses of this issue influence welfare reform, health insurance reform, and other social policies.
  • Explain how the federal, state, and local governments have responded to demographic and social changes such as population shifts to the suburbs, racial concentrations in the cities, Frostbelt-to-Sunbelt migration, international migration, decline of family farms, increases in out-of-wedlock births, and drug abuse.

Grade 12 (Grade 12 Social Studies)

  • 12.1 Students explain the fundamental principles and moral values of American democracy as expressed in the U.S. Constitution and other essential documents of American democracy.
  • Analyze the influence of ancient Greek, Roman, English, and leading European political thinkers such as John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, Niccolò Machiavelli, and William Blackstone on the development of American government.
  • Discuss the character of American democracy and its promise and perils as articulated by Alexis de Tocqueville.
  • Explain how the U.S. Constitution reflects a balance between the classical republican concern with promotion of the public good and the classical liberal concern with protecting individual rights; and discuss how the basic premises of liberal constitutionalism and democracy are joined in the Declaration of Independence as “self-evident truths.”
  • Explain how the Founding Fathers’ realistic view of human nature led directly to the establishment of a constitutional system that limited the power of the governors and the governed as articulated in the Federalist Papers.
  • Describe the systems of separated and shared powers, the role of organized interests (Federalist Paper Number 10), checks and balances (Federalist Paper Number 51), the importance of an independent judiciary (Federalist Paper Number 78), enumerated powers, rule of law, federalism, and civilian control of the military.
  • Understand that the Bill of Rights limits the powers of the federal government and state governments.
  • 12.2 Students evaluate and take and defend positions on the scope and limits of rights and obligations as democratic citizens, the relationships among them, and how they are secured.
  • Discuss the meaning and importance of each of the rights guaranteed under the Bill of Rights and how each is secured (e.g., freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, petition, privacy).
  • Explain how economic rights are secured and their importance to the individual and to society (e.g., the right to acquire, use, transfer, and dispose of property; right to choose one’s work; right to join or not join labor unions; copyright and patent).
  • Discuss the individual’s legal obligations to obey the law, serve as a juror, and pay taxes.
    Understand the obligations of civic-mindedness, including voting, being informed on civic issues, volunteering and performing public service, and serving in the military or alternative service.
  • Describe the reciprocity between rights and obligations; that is, why enjoyment of one’s rights entails respect for the rights of others.
    Explain how one becomes a citizen of the United States, including the process of naturalization (e.g., literacy, language, and other requirements).
  • 12.3 Students evaluate and take and defend positions on what the fundamental values and principles of civil society are (i.e., the autonomous sphere of voluntary personal, social, and economic relations that are not part of government), their interdependence, and the meaning and importance of those values and principles for a free society.
  • Explain how civil society provides opportunities for individuals to associate for social, cultural, religious, economic, and political purposes.
  • Explain how civil society makes it possible for people, individually or in association with others, to bring their influence to bear on government in ways other than voting and elections.
  • Discuss the historical role of religion and religious diversity.
  • Compare the relationship of government and civil society in constitutional democracies to the relationship of government and civil society in authoritarian and totalitarian regimes.
    12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution.
  • Discuss Article I of the Constitution as it relates to the legislative branch, including eligibility for office and lengths of terms of representatives and senators; election to office; the roles of the House and Senate in impeachment proceedings; the role of the vice president; the enumerated legislative powers; and the process by which a bill becomes a law.
  • Explain the process through which the Constitution can be amended.
  • Identify their current representatives in the legislative branch of the national government.
  • Discuss Article II of the Constitution as it relates to the executive branch, including eligibility for office and length of term, election to and removal from office, the oath of office, and the enumerated executive powers.
  • Discuss Article III of the Constitution as it relates to judicial power, including the length of terms of judges and the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
  • Explain the processes of selection and confirmation of Supreme Court justices.
  • 12.5 Students summarize landmark U.S. Supreme Court interpretations of the Constitution and its amendments.
  • Understand the changing interpretations of the Bill of Rights over time, including interpretations of the basic freedoms (religion, speech, press, petition, and assembly) articulated in the First Amendment and the due process and equal-protection-of-the-law clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • Analyze judicial activism and judicial restraint and the effects of each policy over the decades (e.g., the Warren and Rehnquist courts).
  • Evaluate the effects of the Court’s interpretations of the Constitution in Marbury v.
  • Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, and United States v. Nixon, with emphasis on the arguments espoused by each side in these cases.
  • Explain the controversies that have resulted over changing interpretations of civil rights, including those in Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, Miranda v. Arizona, Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena, and United States v. Virginia (VMI).
  • 12.6 Students evaluate issues regarding campaigns for national, state, and local elective offices.
  • Analyze the origin, development, and role of political parties, noting those occasional periods in which there was only one major party or were more than two major parties.
  • Discuss the history of the nomination process for presidential candidates and the increasing importance of primaries in general elections.
  • Evaluate the roles of polls, campaign advertising, and the controversies over campaign funding.
  • Describe the means that citizens use to participate in the political process (e.g., voting, campaigning, lobbying, filing a legal challenge, demonstrating, petitioning, picketing, running for political office).
  • Discuss the features of direct democracy in numerous states (e.g., the process of referendums, recall elections).
  • Analyze trends in voter turnout; the causes and effects of reapportionment and redistricting, with special attention to spatial districting and the rights of minorities; and the function of the Electoral College.
  • 12.7 Students analyze and compare the powers and procedures of the national, state, tribal, and local governments.
  • Explain how conflicts between levels of government and branches of government are resolved.
  • Identify the major responsibilities and sources of revenue for state and local governments.
  • Discuss reserved powers and concurrent powers of state governments.
  • Discuss the Ninth and Tenth Amendments and interpretations of the extent of the federal government’s power.
  • Explain how public policy is formed, including the setting of the public agenda and implementation of it through regulations and executive orders.
  • Compare the processes of lawmaking at each of the three levels of government, including the role of lobbying and the media.
  • Identify the organization and jurisdiction of federal, state, and local (e.g., California) courts and the interrelationships among them.
  • Understand the scope of presidential power and decision making through examination of case studies such as the Cuban Missile Crisis, passage of Great Society legislation, War Powers Act, Gulf War, and Bosnia.
  • 12.8 Students evaluate and take and defend positions on the influence of the media on American political life.
  • Discuss the meaning and importance of a free and responsible press.
  • Describe the roles of broadcast, print, and electronic media, including the Internet, as means of communication in American politics.
  • Explain how public officials use the media to communicate with the citizenry and to shape public opinion.
  • 12.9 Students analyze the origins, characteristics, and development of different political systems across time, with emphasis on the quest for political democracy, its advances, and its obstacles.
  • Explain how the different philosophies and structures of feudalism, mercantilism, socialism, fascism, communism, monarchies, parliamentary systems, and constitutional liberal democracies influence economic policies, social welfare policies, and human rights practices.
  • Compare the various ways in which power is distributed, shared, and limited in systems of shared powers and in parliamentary systems, including the influence and role of parliamentary leaders (e.g., William Gladstone, Margaret Thatcher).
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of federal, con federal, and unitary systems of government.
  • Describe for at least two countries the consequences of conditions that gave rise to tyrannies during certain periods (e.g., Italy, Japan, Haiti, Nigeria, Cambodia).
  • Identify the forms of illegitimate power that twentieth-century African, Asian, and Latin American dictators used to gain and hold office and the conditions and interests that supported them.
  • Identify the ideologies, causes, stages, and outcomes of major Mexican, Central American, and South American revolutions in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
  • Describe the ideologies that give rise to Communism, methods of maintaining control, and the movements to overthrow such governments in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland, including the roles of individuals (e.g., Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Pope John Paul II, Lech Walesa, Vaclav Havel).
  • Identify the successes of relatively new democracies in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the ideas, leaders, and general societal conditions that have launched and sustained, or failed to sustain, them.
  • 12.10 Students formulate questions about and defend their analyses of tensions within our constitutional democracy and the importance of maintaining a balance between the following concepts: majority rule and individual rights; liberty and equality; state and national authority in a federal system; civil disobedience and the rule of law; freedom of the press and the right to a fair trial; the relationship of religion and government.

Grade 12 (Grade 12 Economics)

  • 12.1 Students understand common economic terms and concepts and economic reasoning.
  • Examine the causal relationship between scarcity and the need for choices.
  • Explain opportunity cost and marginal benefit and marginal cost.
  • Identify the difference between monetary and non monetary incentives and how changes in incentives cause changes in behavior.
  • Evaluate the role of private property as an incentive in conserving and improving scarce resources, including renewable and nonrenewable natural resources.
  • Analyze the role of a market economy in establishing and preserving political and personal liberty (e.g., through the works of Adam Smith).
  • 12.2 Students analyze the elements of America’s market economy in a global setting.
  • Understand the relationship of the concept of incentives to the law of supply and the relationship of the concept of incentives and substitutes to the law of demand.
  • Discuss the effects of changes in supply and/ or demand on the relative scarcity, price, and quantity of particular products.
  • Explain the roles of property rights, competition, and profit in a market economy.
  • Explain how prices reflect the relative scarcity of goods and services and perform the allocative function in a market economy.
  • Understand the process by which competition among buyers and sellers determines a market price.
  • Describe the effect of price controls on buyers and sellers.
  • Analyze how domestic and international competition in a market economy affects goods and services produced and the quality, quantity, and price of those products.
  • Explain the role of profit as the incentive to entrepreneurs in a market economy.
  • Describe the functions of the financial markets.
  • Discuss the economic principles that guide the location of agricultural production and industry and the spatial distribution of transportation and retail facilities.
  • 12.3 Students analyze the influence of the federal government on the American economy.
  • Understand how the role of government in a market economy often includes providing for national defense, addressing environmental concerns, defining and enforcing property rights, attempting to make markets more competitive, and protecting consumers’ rights.
  • Identify the factors that may cause the costs of government actions to outweigh the benefits.
  • Describe the aims of government fiscal policies (taxation, borrowing, spending) and their influence on production, employment, and price levels.
  • Understand the aims and tools of monetary policy and their influence on economic activity (e.g., the Federal Reserve).
  • 12.4 Students analyze the elements of the U.S. labor market in a global setting.
  • Understand the operations of the labor market, including the circumstances surrounding the establishment of principal American labor unions, procedures that unions use to gain benefits for their members, the effects of unionization, the mini-mum wage, and unemployment insurance.
  • Describe the current economy and labor market, including the types of goods and services produced, the types of skills workers need, the effects of rapid technological change, and the impact of international competition.
  • Discuss wage differences among jobs and professions, using the laws of demand and supply and the concept of productivity.
  • Explain the effects of international mobility of capital and labor on the U.S. economy.
    12.5 Students analyze the aggregate economic behavior of the U.S. economy.
  • Distinguish between nominal and real data.
  • Define, calculate, and explain the significance of an unemployment rate, the number of new jobs created monthly, an inflation or deflation rate, and a rate of economic growth.
  • Distinguish between short-term and long-term interest rates and explain their relative significance.
  • 12.6 Students analyze issues of international trade and explain how the U.S. economy affects, and is affected by, economic forces beyond the United States’s borders.
  • Identify the gains in consumption and production efficiency from trade, with emphasis on the main products and changing geographic patterns of twentieth-century trade among countries in the Western Hemisphere.
  • Compare the reasons for and the effects of trade restrictions during the Great Depression compared with present-day arguments among labor, business, and political leaders over the effects of free trade on the economic and social interests of various groups of Americans.
  • Understand the changing role of international political borders and territorial sovereignty in a global economy.
  • Explain foreign exchange, the manner in which exchange rates are determined, and the effects of the dollar’s gaining (or losing) value relative to other currencies.

Kindergarten (Kindergarten Analysis Skill)

1. Students place key events and people of the historical era they are studying in a chronological sequence and within a spatial context; they interpret time lines.
2. Students correctly apply terms related to time, including past, present, future, decade, century, and generation.
3. Students explain how the present is connected to the past, identifying both similarities and differences between the two, and how some things change over time and some things stay the same.
4. Students use map and globe skills to determine the absolute locations of places and interpret information available through a map’s or globe’s legend, scale, and symbolic representations.
5. Students judge the significance of the relative location of a place (e.g., proximity to a harbor, on trade routes) and analyze how relative advantages or disadvantages can change over time.
“Research, Evidence, and
Point of View”
1. Students differentiate between primary and secondary sources.
2. Students pose relevant questions about events they encounter in historical documents, eyewitness accounts, oral histories, letters, diaries, artifacts, photographs, maps, artworks, and architecture.
3. Students distinguish fact from fiction by comparing documentary sources on historical figures and events with fictionalized characters and events.
“Historical
Interpretation”
1. Students summarize the key events of the era they are studying and explain the historical contexts of those events.
2. Students identify the human and physical characteristics of the places they are studying and explain how those features form the unique character of those places.
3. Students identify and interpret the multiple causes and effects of historical events.
4. Students conduct cost-benefit analyses of historical and current events.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Analysis Skill)

“Chronological and
Spatial Thinking”
1. Students explain how major events are related to one another in time.
2. Students construct various time lines of key events, people, and periods of the historical era they are studying.
3. Students use a variety of maps and documents to identify physical and cultural features of neighborhoods, cities, states, and countries and to explain the historical migration of people, expansion and disintegration of empires, and the growth of economic systems.
“Research, Evidence, and
Point of View”
1. Students frame questions that can be answered by historical study and research.
2. Students distinguish fact from opinion in historical narratives and stories.
3. Students distinguish relevant from irrelevant information, essential from incidental information, and verifiable from unverifiable information in historical narratives and stories.
4. Students assess the credibility of primary and secondary sources and draw sound conclusions from them.
5. Students detect the different historical points of view on historical events and determine the context in which the historical statements were made (the questions asked, sources used, author’s perspectives).
“Historical
Interpretation”
1. Students explain the central issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a matrix of time and place.
2. Students understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long-and short-term causal relations.
3. Students explain the sources of historical continuity and how the combination of ideas and events explains the emergence of new patterns.
4. Students recognize the role of chance, oversight, and error in history.
5. Students recognize that interpretations of history are subject to change as new information is uncovered.
6. Students interpret basic indicators of economic performance and conduct cost-benefit analyses of economic and political issues.

Grade 7 (Grade 7 Analysis Skill)

“Chronological and
Spatial Thinking”
1. Students explain how major events are related to one another in time.
2. Students construct various time lines of key events, people, and periods of the historical era they are studying.
3. Students use a variety of maps and documents to identify physical and cultural features of neighborhoods, cities, states, and countries and to explain the historical migration of people, expansion and disintegration of empires, and the growth of economic systems.
“Research, Evidence, and
Point of View”
1. Students frame questions that can be answered by historical study and research.
2. Students distinguish fact from opinion in historical narratives and stories.
3. Students distinguish relevant from irrelevant information, essential from incidental information, and verifiable from unverifiable information in historical narratives and stories.
4. Students assess the credibility of primary and secondary sources and draw sound conclusions from them.
5. Students detect the different historical points of view on historical events and determine the context in which the historical statements were made (the questions asked, sources used, author’s perspectives).
“Historical
Interpretation”
1. Students explain the central issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a matrix of time and place.
2. Students understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long-and short-term causal relations.
3. Students explain the sources of historical continuity and how the combination of ideas and events explains the emergence of new patterns.
4. Students recognize the role of chance, oversight, and error in history.
5. Students recognize that interpretations of history are subject to change as new information is uncovered.
6. Students interpret basic indicators of economic performance and conduct cost-benefit analyses of economic and political issues.

Grade 8 (Grade 8 Analysis Skill)

“Chronological and
Spatial Thinking”
1. Students explain how major events are related to one another in time.
2. Students construct various time lines of key events, people, and periods of the historical era they are studying.
3. Students use a variety of maps and documents to identify physical and cultural features of neighborhoods, cities, states, and countries and to explain the historical migration of people, expansion and disintegration of empires, and the growth of economic systems.
“Research, Evidence, and
Point of View”
1. Students frame questions that can be answered by historical study and research.
2. Students distinguish fact from opinion in historical narratives and stories.
3. Students distinguish relevant from irrelevant information, essential from incidental information, and verifiable from unverifiable information in historical narratives and stories.
4. Students assess the credibility of primary and secondary sources and draw sound conclusions from them.
5. Students detect the different historical points of view on historical events and determine the context in which the historical statements were made (the questions asked, sources used, author’s perspectives).
“Historical
Interpretation”
1. Students explain the central issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a matrix of time and place.
2. Students understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long-and short-term causal relations.
3. Students explain the sources of historical continuity and how the combination of ideas and events explains the emergence of new patterns.
4. Students recognize the role of chance, oversight, and error in history.
5. Students recognize that interpretations of history are subject to change as new information is uncovered.
6. Students interpret basic indicators of economic performance and conduct cost-benefit analyses of economic and political issues.

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Analysis Skill)

  • Students compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons that were learned.
  • Students analyze how change happens at different rates at different times; understand that some aspects can change while others remain the same; and understand that change is complicated and affects not only technology and politics but also values and beliefs.
  • Students use a variety of maps and documents to interpret human movement, including major patterns of domestic and international migration, changing environmental preferences and settlement patterns, the frictions that develop between population groups, and the diffusion of ideas, technological innovations, and goods.
  • Students relate current events to the physical and human characteristics of places and regions.
  • Students distinguish valid arguments from fallacious arguments in historical interpretations.
  • Students identify bias and prejudice in historical interpretations.
  • Students evaluate major debates among historians concerning alternative interpretations of the past, including an analysis of authors’ use of evidence and the distinctions between sound generalizations and misleading oversimplifications.
  • Students construct and test hypotheses; collect, evaluate, and employ information from multiple primary and secondary sources; and apply it in oral and written presentations.
  • Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments.
  • Students recognize the complexity of historical causes and effects, including the limitations on determining cause and effect.
  • Students interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded rather than solely in terms of present-day norms and values.
  • Students understand the meaning, implication, and impact of historical events and recognize that events could have taken other directions.
  • Students analyze human modifications of landscapes and examine the resulting environmental policy issues.
  • Students conduct cost-benefit analyses and apply basic economic indicators to analyze the aggregate economic behavior of the U.S. economy.

 

Grade 10 (Grade 10 Analysis Skill)

  • Students compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons that were learned.
  • Students analyze how change happens at different rates at different times; understand that some aspects can change while others remain the same; and understand that change is complicated and affects not only technology and politics but also values and beliefs.
  • Students use a variety of maps and documents to interpret human movement, including major patterns of domestic and international migration, changing environmental preferences and settlement patterns, the frictions that develop between population groups, and the diffusion of ideas, technological innovations, and goods.
  • Students relate current events to the physical and human characteristics of places and regions.
  • Students distinguish valid arguments from fallacious arguments in historical interpretations.
  • Students identify bias and prejudice in historical interpretations.
  • Students evaluate major debates among historians concerning alternative interpretations of the past, including an analysis of authors’ use of evidence and the distinctions between sound generalizations and misleading oversimplifications.
  • Students construct and test hypotheses; collect, evaluate, and employ information from multiple primary and secondary sources; and apply it in oral and written presentations.
  • Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments.
  • Students recognize the complexity of historical causes and effects, including the limitations on determining cause and effect.
  • Students interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded rather than solely in terms of present-day norms and values.
  • Students understand the meaning, implication, and impact of historical events and recognize that events could have taken other directions.
  • Students analyze human modifications of landscapes and examine the resulting environmental policy issues.
  • Students conduct cost-benefit analyses and apply basic economic indicators to analyze the aggregate economic behavior of the U.S. economy.

 

Grade 11 (Grade 11 Analysis Skill)

  • Students compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons that were learned.
  • Students analyze how change happens at different rates at different times; understand that some aspects can change while others remain the same; and understand that change is complicated and affects not only technology and politics but also values and beliefs.
  • Students use a variety of maps and documents to interpret human movement, including major patterns of domestic and international migration, changing environmental preferences and settlement patterns, the frictions that develop between population groups, and the diffusion of ideas, technological innovations, and goods.
  • Students relate current events to the physical and human characteristics of places and regions.
  • Students distinguish valid arguments from fallacious arguments in historical interpretations.
  • Students identify bias and prejudice in historical interpretations.
  • Students evaluate major debates among historians concerning alternative interpretations of the past, including an analysis of authors’ use of evidence and the distinctions between sound generalizations and misleading oversimplifications.
  • Students construct and test hypotheses; collect, evaluate, and employ information from multiple primary and secondary sources; and apply it in oral and written presentations.
  • Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments.
  • Students recognize the complexity of historical causes and effects, including the limitations on determining cause and effect.
  • Students interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded rather than solely in terms of present-day norms and values.
  • Students understand the meaning, implication, and impact of historical events and recognize that events could have taken other directions.
  • Students analyze human modifications of landscapes and examine the resulting environmental policy issues.
  • Students conduct cost-benefit analyses and apply basic economic indicators to analyze the aggregate economic behavior of the U.S. economy.

 

Grade 12 (Grade 12 Analysis Skill)

  • Students compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons that were learned.
  • Students analyze how change happens at different rates at different times; understand that some aspects can change while others remain the same; and understand that change is complicated and affects not only technology and politics but also values and beliefs.
  • Students use a variety of maps and documents to interpret human movement, including major patterns of domestic and international migration, changing environmental preferences and settlement patterns, the frictions that develop between population groups, and the diffusion of ideas, technological innovations, and goods.
  • Students relate current events to the physical and human characteristics of places and regions.
  • Students distinguish valid arguments from fallacious arguments in historical interpretations.
  • Students identify bias and prejudice in historical interpretations.
  • Students evaluate major debates among historians concerning alternative interpretations of the past, including an analysis of authors’ use of evidence and the distinctions between sound generalizations and misleading oversimplifications.
  • Students construct and test hypotheses; collect, evaluate, and employ information from multiple primary and secondary sources; and apply it in oral and written presentations.
  • Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments.
  • Students recognize the complexity of historical causes and effects, including the limitations on determining cause and effect.
  • Students interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded rather than solely in terms of present-day norms and values.
  • Students understand the meaning, implication, and impact of historical events and recognize that events could have taken other directions.
  • Students analyze human modifications of landscapes and examine the resulting environmental policy issues.
  • Students conduct cost-benefit analyses and apply basic economic indicators to analyze the aggregate economic behavior of the U.S. economy.

 

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Physics)

  • Students know how to solve problems that involve constant speed and average speed.
  • Students know that when forces are balanced, no acceleration occurs; thus an object continues to move at a constant speed or stays at rest (Newton’s first law).
  • Students know how to apply the law F=ma to solve one-dimensional motion problems that involve constant forces (Newton’s second law).
  • Students know that when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object always exerts a force of equal magnitude and in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law).
  • Students know the relationship between the universal law of gravitation and the effect of gravity on an object at the surface of Earth.
  • Students know applying a force to an object perpendicular to the direction of its motion causes the object to change direction but not speed (e.g., Earth’s gravitational force causes a satellite in a circular orbit to change direction but not speed).
  • Students know circular motion requires the application of a constant force directed toward the center of the circle.
    * Students know Newton’s laws are not exact but provide very good approximations unless an object is moving close to the speed of light or is small enough that quantum effects are important.
    * Students know how to solve two-dimensional trajectory problems.
    * Students know how to resolve two-dimensional vectors into their components and calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components.
    * Students know how to solve two-dimensional problems involving balanced forces (statics).
    * Students know how to solve problems in circular motion by using the formula for centripetal acceleration in the following form: a=v2/r.
    * Students know how to solve problems involving the forces between two electric charges at a distance (Coulomb’s law) or the forces between two masses at a distance (universal gravitation).
  • Students know how to calculate kinetic energy by using the formula E=(1/2)mv2 .
  • Students know how to calculate changes in gravitational potential energy near Earth by using the formula (change in potential energy) =mgh (h is the change in the elevation).
  • Students know how to solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple systems, such as falling objects.
  • Students know how to calculate momentum as the product mv.
  • Students know momentum is a separately conserved quantity different from energy.
  • Students know an unbalanced force on an object produces a change in its momentum.
  • Students know how to solve problems involving elastic and inelastic collisions in one dimension by using the principles of conservation of momentum and energy.
    * Students know how to solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple systems with various sources of potential energy, such as capacitors and springs.

Grade 10 (Grade 10 Physics)

  • Students know how to solve problems that involve constant speed and average speed.
  • Students know that when forces are balanced, no acceleration occurs; thus an object continues to move at a constant speed or stays at rest (Newton’s first law).
  • Students know how to apply the law F=ma to solve one-dimensional motion problems that involve constant forces (Newton’s second law).
  • Students know that when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object always exerts a force of equal magnitude and in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law).
  • Students know the relationship between the universal law of gravitation and the effect of gravity on an object at the surface of Earth.
  • Students know applying a force to an object perpendicular to the direction of its motion causes the object to change direction but not speed (e.g., Earth’s gravitational force causes a satellite in a circular orbit to change direction but not speed).
  • Students know circular motion requires the application of a constant force directed toward the center of the circle.
    * Students know Newton’s laws are not exact but provide very good approximations unless an object is moving close to the speed of light or is small enough that quantum effects are important.
    * Students know how to solve two-dimensional trajectory problems.
    * Students know how to resolve two-dimensional vectors into their components and calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components.
    * Students know how to solve two-dimensional problems involving balanced forces (statics).
    * Students know how to solve problems in circular motion by using the formula for centripetal acceleration in the following form: a=v2/r.
    * Students know how to solve problems involving the forces between two electric charges at a distance (Coulomb’s law) or the forces between two masses at a distance (universal gravitation).
  • Students know how to calculate kinetic energy by using the formula E=(1/2)mv2 .
  • Students know how to calculate changes in gravitational potential energy near Earth by using the formula (change in potential energy) =mgh (h is the change in the elevation).
  • Students know how to solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple systems, such as falling objects.
  • Students know how to calculate momentum as the product mv.
  • Students know momentum is a separately conserved quantity different from energy.
  • Students know an unbalanced force on an object produces a change in its momentum.
  • Students know how to solve problems involving elastic and inelastic collisions in one dimension by using the principles of conservation of momentum and energy.
    * Students know how to solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple systems with various sources of potential energy, such as capacitors and springs.

Grade 11 (Grade 11 Physics)

  • Students know how to solve problems that involve constant speed and average speed.
  • Students know that when forces are balanced, no acceleration occurs; thus an object continues to move at a constant speed or stays at rest (Newton’s first law).
  • Students know how to apply the law F=ma to solve one-dimensional motion problems that involve constant forces (Newton’s second law).
  • Students know that when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object always exerts a force of equal magnitude and in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law).
  • Students know the relationship between the universal law of gravitation and the effect of gravity on an object at the surface of Earth.
  • Students know applying a force to an object perpendicular to the direction of its motion causes the object to change direction but not speed (e.g., Earth’s gravitational force causes a satellite in a circular orbit to change direction but not speed).
  • Students know circular motion requires the application of a constant force directed toward the center of the circle.
    * Students know Newton’s laws are not exact but provide very good approximations unless an object is moving close to the speed of light or is small enough that quantum effects are important.
    * Students know how to solve two-dimensional trajectory problems.
    * Students know how to resolve two-dimensional vectors into their components and calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components.
    * Students know how to solve two-dimensional problems involving balanced forces (statics).
    * Students know how to solve problems in circular motion by using the formula for centripetal acceleration in the following form: a=v2/r.
    * Students know how to solve problems involving the forces between two electric charges at a distance (Coulomb’s law) or the forces between two masses at a distance (universal gravitation).
  • Students know how to calculate kinetic energy by using the formula E=(1/2)mv2 .
  • Students know how to calculate changes in gravitational potential energy near Earth by using the formula (change in potential energy) =mgh (h is the change in the elevation).
  • Students know how to solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple systems, such as falling objects.
  • Students know how to calculate momentum as the product mv.
  • Students know momentum is a separately conserved quantity different from energy.
  • Students know an unbalanced force on an object produces a change in its momentum.
  • Students know how to solve problems involving elastic and inelastic collisions in one dimension by using the principles of conservation of momentum and energy.
    * Students know how to solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple systems with various sources of potential energy, such as capacitors and springs.

Grade 12 (Grade 12 Physics)

  • Students know how to solve problems that involve constant speed and average speed.
  • Students know that when forces are balanced, no acceleration occurs; thus an object continues to move at a constant speed or stays at rest (Newton’s first law).
  • Students know how to apply the law F=ma to solve one-dimensional motion problems that involve constant forces (Newton’s second law).
  • Students know that when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object always exerts a force of equal magnitude and in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law).
  • Students know the relationship between the universal law of gravitation and the effect of gravity on an object at the surface of Earth.
  • Students know applying a force to an object perpendicular to the direction of its motion causes the object to change direction but not speed (e.g., Earth’s gravitational force causes a satellite in a circular orbit to change direction but not speed).
  • Students know circular motion requires the application of a constant force directed toward the center of the circle.
    * Students know Newton’s laws are not exact but provide very good approximations unless an object is moving close to the speed of light or is small enough that quantum effects are important.
    * Students know how to solve two-dimensional trajectory problems.
    * Students know how to resolve two-dimensional vectors into their components and calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components.
    * Students know how to solve two-dimensional problems involving balanced forces (statics).
    * Students know how to solve problems in circular motion by using the formula for centripetal acceleration in the following form: a=v2/r.
    * Students know how to solve problems involving the forces between two electric charges at a distance (Coulomb’s law) or the forces between two masses at a distance (universal gravitation).
  • Students know how to calculate kinetic energy by using the formula E=(1/2)mv2 .
  • Students know how to calculate changes in gravitational potential energy near Earth by using the formula (change in potential energy) =mgh (h is the change in the elevation).
  • Students know how to solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple systems, such as falling objects.
  • Students know how to calculate momentum as the product mv.
  • Students know momentum is a separately conserved quantity different from energy.
  • Students know an unbalanced force on an object produces a change in its momentum.
  • Students know how to solve problems involving elastic and inelastic collisions in one dimension by using the principles of conservation of momentum and energy.
    * Students know how to solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple systems with various sources of potential energy, such as capacitors and springs.

Grade 11 (Grade 11 Language)

  • 11-12.L.1 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • 11-12.L.1.a – Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested.
    • 11-12.L.1.b – Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, Garner’s Modern American Usage) as needed.
  • 11-12.L.2 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • 11-12.L.2.a – Observe hyphenation conventions.
    • 11-12.L.2.b – Spell correctly.
  • 11-12.L.3 – Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
    • 11-12.L.3.a – Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.
  • 11-12.L.4 – Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11–12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    • 11-12.L.4.a – Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • 11-12.L.4.b – Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).
    • 11-12.L.4.c – Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.
    • 11-12.L.4.d – Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  • 11-12.L.5 – Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
    • 11-12.L.5.a – Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text.
    • 11-12.L.5.b – Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
  • 11-12.L.6 – Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Grade 12 (Grade 12 Language)

  • 11-12.L.1 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • 11-12.L.1.a – Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested.
    • 11-12.L.1.b – Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, Garner’s Modern American Usage) as needed.
  • 11-12.L.2 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • 11-12.L.2.a – Observe hyphenation conventions.
    • 11-12.L.2.b – Spell correctly.
  • 11-12.L.3 – Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
    • 11-12.L.3.a – Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.
  • 11-12.L.4 – Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11–12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    • 11-12.L.4.a – Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • 11-12.L.4.b – Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).
    • 11-12.L.4.c – Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.
    • 11-12.L.4.d – Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  • 11-12.L.5 – Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
    • 11-12.L.5.a – Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text.
    • 11-12.L.5.b – Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
  • 11-12.L.6 – Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Grade 11 (Grade 11 Reading History Social Studies)

  • 11-12.RH.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole.
  • 11-12.RH.2 – Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.
  • 11-12.RH.3 – Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • 11-12.RH.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).
  • 11-12.RH.5 – Analyze in detail how a complex primary source is structured, including how key sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text contribute to the whole.
  • 11-12.RH.6 – Evaluate authors’ differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors’ claims, reasoning, and evidence.
  • 11-12.RH.7 – Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
  • 11-12.RH.8 – Evaluate an author’s premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information.
  • 11-12.RH.9 – Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources.
  • 11-12.RH.10 – By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 12 (Grade 12 Reading History Social Studies)

  • 11-12.RH.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole.
  • 11-12.RH.2 – Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.
  • 11-12.RH.3 – Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • 11-12.RH.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).
  • 11-12.RH.5 – Analyze in detail how a complex primary source is structured, including how key sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text contribute to the whole.
  • 11-12.RH.6 – Evaluate authors’ differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors’ claims, reasoning, and evidence.
  • 11-12.RH.7 – Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
  • 11-12.RH.8 – Evaluate an author’s premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information.
  • 11-12.RH.9 – Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources.
  • 11-12.RH.10 – By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 11 (Grade 11 Reading Informational)

  • 11-12.RI.1 – Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • 11-12.RI.2 – Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • 11-12.RI.3 – Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.
  • 11-12.RI.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).
  • 11-12.RI.5 – Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.
  • 11-12.RI.6 – Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness or beauty of the text.
  • 11-12.RI.7 – Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.
  • 11-12.RI.8 – Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses).
  • 11-12.RI.9 – Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features.
  • 11-12.RI.10 – By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 12 (Grade 12 Reading Informational)

  • 11-12.RI.1 – Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • 11-12.RI.2 – Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • 11-12.RI.3 – Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.
  • 11-12.RI.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).
  • 11-12.RI.5 – Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.
  • 11-12.RI.6 – Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness or beauty of the text.
  • 11-12.RI.7 – Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.
  • 11-12.RI.8 – Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses).
  • 11-12.RI.9 – Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features.
  • 11-12.RI.10 – By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 11 (Grade 11 Reading Literature)

  • 11-12.RL.1 – Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • 11-12.RL.2 – Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • 11-12.RL.3 – Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).
  • 11-12.RL.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)
  • 11-12.RL.5 – Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.
  • 11-12.RL.6 – Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).
  • 11-12.RL.7 – Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)
  • 11-12.RL.8 – (Not applicable to literature)
  • 11-12.RL.9 – Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics.
  • 11-12.RL.10 – By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 12 (Grade 12 Reading Literature)

  • 11-12.RL.1 – Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
  • 11-12.RL.2 – Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • 11-12.RL.3 – Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).
  • 11-12.RL.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)
  • 11-12.RL.5 – Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.
  • 11-12.RL.6 – Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).
  • 11-12.RL.7 – Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)
  • 11-12.RL.8 – (Not applicable to literature)
  • 11-12.RL.9 – Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics.
  • 11-12.RL.10 – By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 11 (Grade 11 Reading Science Technical)

  • 11-12.RST.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
  • 11-12.RST.2 – Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms.
  • 11-12.RST.3 – Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text.
  • 11-12.RST.4 – Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11–12 texts and topics.
  • 11-12.RST.5 – Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies, demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas.
  • 11-12.RST.6 – Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.
  • 11-12.RST.7 – Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
  • 11-12.RST.8 – Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.
  • 11-12.RST.9 – Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.
  • 11-12.RST.10 – By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11–12 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 12 (Grade 12 Reading Science Technical)

  • 11-12.RST.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
  • 11-12.RST.2 – Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms.
  • 11-12.RST.3 – Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text.
  • 11-12.RST.4 – Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11–12 texts and topics.
  • 11-12.RST.5 – Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies, demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas.
  • 11-12.RST.6 – Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.
  • 11-12.RST.7 – Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
  • 11-12.RST.8 – Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.
  • 11-12.RST.9 – Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.
  • 11-12.RST.10 – By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11–12 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 11 (Grade 11 Speaking and Listening)

  • 11-12.SL.1 – Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11–12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
    • 11-12.SL.1.a – Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    • 11-12.SL.1.b – Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed.
    • 11-12.SL.1.c – Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
    • 11-12.SL.1.d – Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.
  • 11-12.SL.2 – Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.
  • 11-12.SL.3 – Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.
  • 11-12.SL.4 – Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.
  • 11-12.SL.5 – Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.
  • 11-12.SL.6 – Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Grade 12 (Grade 12 Speaking and Listening)

  • 11-12.SL.1 – Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11–12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
    • 11-12.SL.1.a – Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    • 11-12.SL.1.b – Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed.
    • 11-12.SL.1.c – Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
    • 11-12.SL.1.d – Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.
  • 11-12.SL.2 – Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.
  • 11-12.SL.3 – Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.
  • 11-12.SL.4 – Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.
  • 11-12.SL.5 – Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.
  • 11-12.SL.6 – Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Grade 11 (Grade 11 Writing)

  • 11-12.W.1 – Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
    • 11-12.W.1.a – Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • 11-12.W.1.b – Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
    • 11-12.W.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    • 11-12.W.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 11-12.W.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • 11-12.W.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
    • 11-12.W.2.a – Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 11-12.W.2.b – Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    • 11-12.W.2.c – Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    • 11-12.W.2.d – Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
    • 11-12.W.2.e – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 11-12.W.2.f – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  • 11-12.W.3 – Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • 11-12.W.3.a – Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    • 11-12.W.3.b – Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • 11-12.W.3.c – Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
    • 11-12.W.3.d – Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
    • 11-12.W.3.e – Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
  • 11-12.W.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • 11-12.W.5 – Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
  • 11-12.W.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
  • 11-12.W.7 – Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
  • 11-12.W.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
  • 11-12.W.9 – Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • 11-12.W.9.a – Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics”).
    • 11-12.W.9.b – Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses]”).
  • 11-12.W.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes

Grade 12 (Grade 12 Writing)

  • 11-12.W.1 – Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
    • 11-12.W.1.a – Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • 11-12.W.1.b – Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
    • 11-12.W.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    • 11-12.W.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 11-12.W.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • 11-12.W.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
    • 11-12.W.2.a – Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 11-12.W.2.b – Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    • 11-12.W.2.c – Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    • 11-12.W.2.d – Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
    • 11-12.W.2.e – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 11-12.W.2.f – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  • 11-12.W.3 – Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • 11-12.W.3.a – Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    • 11-12.W.3.b – Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • 11-12.W.3.c – Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
    • 11-12.W.3.d – Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
    • 11-12.W.3.e – Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
  • 11-12.W.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • 11-12.W.5 – Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
  • 11-12.W.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
  • 11-12.W.7 – Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
  • 11-12.W.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
  • 11-12.W.9 – Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • 11-12.W.9.a – Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics”).
    • 11-12.W.9.b – Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses]”).
  • 11-12.W.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes

Grade 11 (Grade 11 Writing HS/S/T)

  • 11-12.WHST.1 – Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
    • 11-12.WHST.1.a – Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • 11-12.WHST.1.b – Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
    • 11-12.WHST.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    • 11-12.WHST.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 11-12.WHST.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
  • 11-12.WHST.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
    • 11-12.WHST.2.a – Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 11-12.WHST.2.b – Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    • 11-12.WHST.2.c – Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    • 11-12.WHST.2.d – Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
    • 11-12.WHST.2.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  • 11-12.WHST.3 – (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement)
  • 11-12.WHST.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • 11-12.WHST.5 – Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
  • 11-12.WHST.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
  • 11-12.WHST.7 – Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
  • 11-12.WHST.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
  • 11-12.WHST.9 – Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  • 11-12.WHST.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 12 (Grade 12 Writing HS/S/T)

  • 11-12.WHST.1 – Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
    • 11-12.WHST.1.a – Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • 11-12.WHST.1.b – Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
    • 11-12.WHST.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    • 11-12.WHST.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 11-12.WHST.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
  • 11-12.WHST.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
    • 11-12.WHST.2.a – Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 11-12.WHST.2.b – Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    • 11-12.WHST.2.c – Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    • 11-12.WHST.2.d – Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
    • 11-12.WHST.2.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  • 11-12.WHST.3 – (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement)
  • 11-12.WHST.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • 11-12.WHST.5 – Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
  • 11-12.WHST.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
  • 11-12.WHST.7 – Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
  • 11-12.WHST.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.
  • 11-12.WHST.9 – Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  • 11-12.WHST.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Reading History/Social Studies)

  • 6-8.RH.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
  • 6-8.RH.2 – Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
  • 6-8.RH.3 – Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered).
  • 6-8.RH.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
  • 6-8.RH.5 – Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
  • 6-8.RH.6 – Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).
  • 6-8.RH.7 – Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
  • 6-8.RH.8 – Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.
  • 6-8.RH.9 – Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.
  • 6-8.RH.10 – By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 7 (Grade 7 Reading History/Social Studies)

  • 6-8.RH.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
  • 6-8.RH.2 – Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
  • 6-8.RH.3 – Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered).
  • 6-8.RH.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
  • 6-8.RH.5 – Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
  • 6-8.RH.6 – Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).
  • 6-8.RH.7 – Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
  • 6-8.RH.8 – Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.
  • 6-8.RH.9 – Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.
  • 6-8.RH.10 – By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 8 (Grade 8 Reading History/Social Studies)

  • 6-8.RH.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
  • 6-8.RH.2 – Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
  • 6-8.RH.3 – Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered).
  • 6-8.RH.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
  • 6-8.RH.5 – Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
  • 6-8.RH.6 – Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).
  • 6-8.RH.7 – Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
  • 6-8.RH.8 – Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.
  • 6-8.RH.9 – Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.
  • 6-8.RH.10 – By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Reading Science/Technical)

  • 6-8.RST.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts.
  • 6-8.RST.2 – Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
  • 6-8.RST.3 – Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.
  • 6-8.RST.4 – Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6–8 texts and topics.
  • 6-8.RST.5 – Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to an understanding of the topic.
  • 6-8.RST.6 – Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text.
  • 6-8.RST.7 – Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).
  • 6-8.RST.8 – Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text.
  • 6-8.RST.9 – Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.
  • 6-8.RST.10 – By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 7 (Grade 7 Reading Science/Technical)

  • 6-8.RST.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts.
  • 6-8.RST.2 – Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
  • 6-8.RST.3 – Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.
  • 6-8.RST.4 – Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6–8 texts and topics.
  • 6-8.RST.5 – Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to an understanding of the topic.
  • 6-8.RST.6 – Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text.
  • 6-8.RST.7 – Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).
  • 6-8.RST.8 – Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text.
  • 6-8.RST.9 – Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.
  • 6-8.RST.10 – By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 8 (Grade 8 Reading Science/Technical)

  • 6-8.RST.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts.
  • 6-8.RST.2 – Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
  • 6-8.RST.3 – Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.
  • 6-8.RST.4 – Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6–8 texts and topics.
  • 6-8.RST.5 – Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to an understanding of the topic.
  • 6-8.RST.6 – Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text.
  • 6-8.RST.7 – Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).
  • 6-8.RST.8 – Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text.
  • 6-8.RST.9 – Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.
  • 6-8.RST.10 – By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 6 (Grade 6 Writing HS/S/T)

  • 6-8.WHST.1 – Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.a – Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.b – Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • 6-8.WHST.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.a – Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.b – Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.c – Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.d – Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.e – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.f – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
  • 6-8.WHST.3 – (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement)
  • 6-8.WHST.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • 6-8.WHST.5 – With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
  • 6-8.WHST.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently.
  • 6-8.WHST.7 – Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
  • 6-8.WHST.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • 6-8.WHST.9 – Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research.
  • 6-8.WHST.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 7 (Grade 7 Writing HS/S/T)

  • 6-8.WHST.1 – Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.a – Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.b – Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • 6-8.WHST.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.a – Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.b – Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.c – Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.d – Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.e – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.f – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
  • 6-8.WHST.3 – (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement)
  • 6-8.WHST.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • 6-8.WHST.5 – With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
  • 6-8.WHST.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently.
  • 6-8.WHST.7 – Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
  • 6-8.WHST.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • 6-8.WHST.9 – Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research.
  • 6-8.WHST.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 8 (Grade 8 Writing HS/S/T)

  • 6-8.WHST.1 – Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.a – Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.b – Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style.
    • 6-8.WHST.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • 6-8.WHST.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.a – Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.b – Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.c – Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.d – Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.e – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.
    • 6-8.WHST.2.f – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
  • 6-8.WHST.3 – (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement)
  • 6-8.WHST.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • 6-8.WHST.5 – With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
  • 6-8.WHST.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently.
  • 6-8.WHST.7 – Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
  • 6-8.WHST.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • 6-8.WHST.9 – Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research.
  • 6-8.WHST.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Language)

  • 9-10.L.1 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • 9-10.L.1.a – Use parallel structure.*
    • 9-10.L.1.b – Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.
  • 9-10.L.2 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • 9-10.L.2.a – Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
    • 9-10.L.2.b – Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
    • 9-10.L.2.c – Spell correctly.
  • 9-10.L.3 – Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
    • 9-10.L.3.a – Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook, Turabian’s Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.
  • 9-10.L.4 – Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    • 9-10.L.4.a – Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • 9-10.L.4.b – Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).
    • 9-10.L.4.c – Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
    • 9-10.L.4.d – Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  • 9-10.L.5 – Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
    • 9-10.L.5.a – Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
    • 9-10.L.5.b – Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
  • 9-10.L.6 – Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Grade 10 (Grade 10 Language)

  • 9-10.L.1 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    • 9-10.L.1.a – Use parallel structure.*
    • 9-10.L.1.b – Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.
  • 9-10.L.2 – Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • 9-10.L.2.a – Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
    • 9-10.L.2.b – Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
    • 9-10.L.2.c – Spell correctly.
  • 9-10.L.3 – Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
    • 9-10.L.3.a – Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook, Turabian’s Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.
  • 9-10.L.4 – Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    • 9-10.L.4.a – Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • 9-10.L.4.b – Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).
    • 9-10.L.4.c – Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
    • 9-10.L.4.d – Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  • 9-10.L.5 – Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
    • 9-10.L.5.a – Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
    • 9-10.L.5.b – Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
  • 9-10.L.6 – Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Reading History/Social Studies)

  • 9-10.RH.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.
  • 9-10.RH.2 – Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.
  • 9-10.RH.3 – Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them.
  • 9-10.RH.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social science.
  • 9-10.RH.5 – Analyze how a text uses structure to emphasize key points or advance an explanation or analysis.
  • 9-10.RH.6 – Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts.
  • 9-10.RH.7 – Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e.g., charts, research data) with qualitative analysis in print or digital text.
  • 9-10.RH.8 – Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claims.
  • 9-10.RH.9 – Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources.
  • 9-10.RH.10 – By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 10 (Grade 10 Reading History/Social Studies)

  • 9-10.RH.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.
  • 9-10.RH.2 – Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.
  • 9-10.RH.3 – Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them.
  • 9-10.RH.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social science.
  • 9-10.RH.5 – Analyze how a text uses structure to emphasize key points or advance an explanation or analysis.
  • 9-10.RH.6 – Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts.
  • 9-10.RH.7 – Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e.g., charts, research data) with qualitative analysis in print or digital text.
  • 9-10.RH.8 – Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claims.
  • 9-10.RH.9 – Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources.
  • 9-10.RH.10 – By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Reading Informational)

  • 9-10.RI.1 – Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • 9-10.RI.2 – Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • 9-10.RI.3 – Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.
  • 9-10.RI.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).
  • 9-10.RI.5 – Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
  • 9-10.RI.6 – Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • 9-10.RI.7 – Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.
  • 9-10.RI.8 – Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.
  • 9-10.RI.9 – Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech, King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”), including how they address related themes and concepts.
  • 9-10.RI.10 – By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 10 (Grade 10 Reading Informational)

  • 9-10.RI.1 – Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • 9-10.RI.2 – Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • 9-10.RI.3 – Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.
  • 9-10.RI.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).
  • 9-10.RI.5 – Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
  • 9-10.RI.6 – Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
  • 9-10.RI.7 – Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.
  • 9-10.RI.8 – Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.
  • 9-10.RI.9 – Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech, King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”), including how they address related themes and concepts.
  • 9-10.RI.10 – By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Reading Literature)

  • 9-10.RL.1 – Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • 9-10.RL.2 – Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • 9-10.RL.3 – Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.
  • 9-10.RL.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).
  • 9-10.RL.5 – Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.
  • 9-10.RL.6 – Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.
  • 9-10.RL.7 – Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).
  • 9-10.RL.8 – (Not applicable to literature)
  • 9-10.RL.9 – Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).
  • 9-10.RL.10 – By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 10 (Grade 10 Reading Literature)

  • 9-10.RL.1 – Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
  • 9-10.RL.2 – Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
  • 9-10.RL.3 – Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.
  • 9-10.RL.4 – Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).
  • 9-10.RL.5 – Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.
  • 9-10.RL.6 – Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.
  • 9-10.RL.7 – Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).
  • 9-10.RL.8 – (Not applicable to literature)
  • 9-10.RL.9 – Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).
  • 9-10.RL.10 – By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Reading Science/Technical)

  • 9-10.RST.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.
  • 9-10.RST.2 – Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the text’s explanation or depiction of a complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide an accurate summary of the text.
  • 9-10.RST.3 – Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text.
  • 9-10.RST.4 – Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9–10 texts and topics.
  • 9-10.RST.5 – Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).
  • 9-10.RST.6 – Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, defining the question the author seeks to address.
  • 9-10.RST.7 – Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
  • 9-10.RST.8 – Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem.
  • 9-10.RST.9 – Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.
  • 9-10.RST.10 – By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 10 (Grade 10 Reading Science/Technical)

  • 9-10.RST.1 – Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.
  • 9-10.RST.2 – Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the text’s explanation or depiction of a complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide an accurate summary of the text.
  • 9-10.RST.3 – Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text.
  • 9-10.RST.4 – Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9–10 texts and topics.
  • 9-10.RST.5 – Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).
  • 9-10.RST.6 – Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, defining the question the author seeks to address.
  • 9-10.RST.7 – Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
  • 9-10.RST.8 – Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem.
  • 9-10.RST.9 – Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.
  • 9-10.RST.10 – By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Speaking and Listening)

  • 9-10.SL.1 – Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
    • 9-10.SL.1.a – Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    • 9-10.SL.1.b – Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
    • 9-10.SL.1.c – Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
    • 9-10.SL.1.d – Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.
  • 9-10.SL.2 – Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.
  • 9-10.SL.3 – Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.
  • 9-10.SL.4 – Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.
  • 9-10.SL.5 – Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.
  • 9-10.SL.6 – Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Grade 10 (Grade 10 Speaking & Listening)

  • 9-10.SL.1 – Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
    • 9-10.SL.1.a – Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    • 9-10.SL.1.b – Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
    • 9-10.SL.1.c – Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
    • 9-10.SL.1.d – Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.
  • 9-10.SL.2 – Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.
  • 9-10.SL.3 – Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.
  • 9-10.SL.4 – Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.
  • 9-10.SL.5 – Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.
  • 9-10.SL.6 – Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Writing)

  • 9-10.W.1 – Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
    • 9-10.W.1.a – Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • 9-10.W.1.b – Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
    • 9-10.W.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    • 9-10.W.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 9-10.W.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • 9-10.W.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
    • 9-10.W.2.a – Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 9-10.W.2.b – Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    • 9-10.W.2.c – Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    • 9-10.W.2.d – Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
    • 9-10.W.2.e – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 9-10.W.2.f – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  • 9-10.W.3 – Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • 9-10.W.3.a – Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    • 9-10.W.3.b – Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • 9-10.W.3.c – Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
    • 9-10.W.3.d – Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
    • 9-10.W.3.e – Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
  • 9-10.W.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • 9-10.W.5 – Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
  • 9-10.W.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.
  • 9-10.W.7 – Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
  • 9-10.W.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • 9-10.W.9 – Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • 9-10.W.9.a – Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
    • 9-10.W.9.b – Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).
  • 9-10.W.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 10 (Grade 10 Writing)

  • 9-10.W.1 – Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
    • 9-10.W.1.a – Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • 9-10.W.1.b – Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
    • 9-10.W.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    • 9-10.W.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 9-10.W.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
  • 9-10.W.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
    • 9-10.W.2.a – Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 9-10.W.2.b – Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    • 9-10.W.2.c – Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    • 9-10.W.2.d – Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
    • 9-10.W.2.e – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 9-10.W.2.f – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  • 9-10.W.3 – Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    • 9-10.W.3.a – Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    • 9-10.W.3.b – Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    • 9-10.W.3.c – Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
    • 9-10.W.3.d – Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
    • 9-10.W.3.e – Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
  • 9-10.W.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
  • 9-10.W.5 – Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
  • 9-10.W.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.
  • 9-10.W.7 – Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
  • 9-10.W.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • 9-10.W.9 – Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • 9-10.W.9.a – Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
    • 9-10.W.9.b – Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).
  • 9-10.W.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 9 (Grade 9 Writing HS/S/T)

  • 9-10.WHST.1 – Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
    • 9-10.WHST.1.a – Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • 9-10.WHST.1.b – Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
    • 9-10.WHST.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    • 9-10.WHST.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 9-10.WHST.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
  • 9-10.WHST.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.a – Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.b – Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.c – Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.d – Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.e – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.f – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  • 9-10.WHST.3 – (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement)
  • 9-10.WHST.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • 9-10.WHST.5 – Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
  • 9-10.WHST.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.
  • 9-10.WHST.7 – Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
  • 9-10.WHST.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • 9-10.WHST.9 – Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  • 9-10.WHST.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 10 (Grade 10 Writing HS/S/T)

  • 9-10.WHST.1 – Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
    • 9-10.WHST.1.a – Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    • 9-10.WHST.1.b – Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
    • 9-10.WHST.1.c – Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    • 9-10.WHST.1.d – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 9-10.WHST.1.e – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
  • 9-10.WHST.2 – Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.a – Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.b – Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.c – Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.d – Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.e – Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    • 9-10.WHST.2.f – Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
  • 9-10.WHST.3 – (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement)
  • 9-10.WHST.4 – Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • 9-10.WHST.5 – Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
  • 9-10.WHST.6 – Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.
  • 9-10.WHST.7 – Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
  • 9-10.WHST.8 – Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
  • 9-10.WHST.9 – Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  • 9-10.WHST.10 – Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Stewardship

Faith Formation